The Kenyan case study examined the experiences of Kisumu, Kenya, drawing lessons from the five-year project ‘People’s Plans into Practice (PPP): Building Productive and Liveable Settlements with Slum Dwellers in Kisumu and Kitale’. The findings presented in this brief are based on interviews and focus group discussions held with key informants, as well as a review of relevant literature, policy documents and plans. Compared to rural areas, residents in urban parts of Kisumu have more access to self-help groups, and have more livelihood options. Gender relations are dynamic and changing, however. Some of the changes are due to local factors, such as increased rural–urban migration and a movement away from traditional sectors like fisheries and agriculture towards more reliance on business and employment. Others are due to external factors such as changes in national and county level policies that give women, in principle, more formal rights and spaces for participation. However, there are still significant challenges in realising these gains in practice.