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  • STEM Matters …our revamped Practical Action schools newsletter

    We asked you what you wanted to call our newly revamped newsletter…and you told us!!

    Over 200 of you took part in our poll and chose STEM Matters as the name for our newsletter. Thank you to everyone who took part, including those who came up with their own wacky ideas ‘ STEM-Y McSTEMFACE’ from science TV presenter Dallas Campbell was my favourite!

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    Our new, more compact style newsletter now comes out once every half term. Signing up to our newsletter means you will be kept in touch with any new materials on our website , conferences we are going to, and a few other bits and bobs related to STEM and/or global issues we think you will be interested in.

    Please do sign up to our newsletter if you haven’t already.

    You can also read our first ever STEM Matters newsletter, out today which includes links to documents which show where our materials fit the science curricula in England, Scotland, Northern Ireland and Wales.

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  • STEM conference on Practical Action projects

    Isn’t it just great when a plan comes together and gives you that warm fuzzy feeling?

    Well I got that fuzzy feeling when tweets started appearing in my twitter feed all about a STEM ( Science, Technology, Engineering and Maths)  conference organised by Pevensey and Westham CE Primary school in Eastbourne.

    Pupils at STEM conference Eastbourne120 students from 11 different schools got together to share work they had been doing on global challenges, inspired by Practical Action projects around the world and using Practical Action’s STEM challenges as a basis for their own work. Students presented their projects which included aerial ropeways to transport tomatoes; wind turbines; hand washing devices and flood resistant houses.

    The conference had come about on the back of some training we had delivered in Eastbourne organised by Marcus Cherrill, Director of I Can teach Ltd, who had approached us having discovered our materials on line (so all that work on SEO paid off!!). Marcus got in touch with us and said he would like us to deliver training to teachers in Eastbourne around our STEM challenges in preparation for the pupil conference.

    Tweet from I can teach ltdIt was great to see that the training really paid off and the teachers’ enthusiasm about our materials clearly transferred to the pupils when they took them back to the classroom. Pupils were inspired by Practical Action’s work and keen to develop models of their own solutions to global poverty. They had obviously put a lot of thought and work into their presentation and one of the teams even had t-shirts printed with their group name on!  The local press were there too so the conference got good coverage in the Eastbourne Herald.

     

    A huge well done to all the students who took part, we hope you go on to be the scientists and engineers of the future that we need to help us alleviate poverty and solve some of the huge global challenges we are currently facing.

    Eastbourne Herald - STEM conference

     

     

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  • Bio-dyke protects Bangalipur community


    April 26th, 2017

    Healthy natural capital provides a buffer between flood hazards and communities. In flood emergencies it provides protecting ecosystem services and in normal time it is a livelihood resource. The vegetation growing along the strengthened river bank in Bangalipur, Bardia brings hope to at least 40 households and provides a site for others to ‘see and learn’.

    There are 135 households living in Bangalipur; 40 households in this community are at risk of flood from the Aurahi Khola, a tributary of Karnali River.

    The flood affects the community in three ways: it erodes the bank away and destroys agriculture and settlement; deposits sand and silt which damages harvests and makes it difficult to cultivate crops in the future; and during high flood events, the flood can inundate settlement leaving people homeless. Over the last 15 years the river has eroded three bigha (2.028 hectare) of agriculture land owned by 10 families rendering some of them landless. If this issue is not addressed the remaining 40 vulnerable household will be displaced.

    Working in isolation, communities did not have the capacity to construct any kind of embankment. The Nepal Flood Resilience Project (NFRP) brought communities together and a representative body was formed – the community disaster management committee (CDMC) of Bangalipur.

    The committee led a vulnerability and capacity assessment (VCA) which identified the Aurahi Khola riverside and nearby households as the most vulnerable to flooding. To address this problem the community identified the need to strengthen the embankment and flood defence structures and included it in their disaster risk management plan.
    Although initial community priority was for high investment concrete structure or a pile of stone filled gabion boxes, they agreed on vegetative measures of bio-dyke technology using locally available resources and mobilising communities through the leadership of the CDMC. The project supported the communities in survey and design, cost estimate, funding for materials that needed to be purchased or hired and the communities provided the locally available materials and labour. A written agreement was reached in between the CDMC and the project outlining the objective, roles and scope of work for both sides.

    River bank before constructing bio-dyke

    The bio-dyke building
    A junior engineer was brought in to technically advise and guide the work. Members of the community worked together to smoothen the bank slope between 30-45 degrees. A base foundation was dug out at the bottom of the bank slope. Then, grip walls were built in the foundation of sand bags supported with bamboo poles and systematically interlocked by gabion iron (GI) wire. These tow walls used 12 ft long bamboo poles in two rows running parallel at one metre and each driven into 8 ft deep holes dug by a driller and sand bag piled in between.

    Piling sand bags along the slope to construct the bio-dyke

    At every 20 m intervals along the bank, bamboo spurs (3 m long, 1.5 m wide and about a metre high) were constructed in the same way – filled with sandbags to deflect water flow away and to prevent water directly hitting the embankment. Sand bags were then piled up along the smooth bank slope – they were guided and interlocked with bamboo poles and GI wire. Lastly, the sandbags along the bank slope were covered with top soil in between hedge rows at 1-2 metres. Before the onset of monsoon (the growing season), locally available seedlings were brought from nurseries and transplanted on the slopes. The plants included bamboo, Napier and bushes that establish and extend their root systems rapidly. Bamboos were chosen at the face – the tow wall side. The community put a hedgerow of plants to prevent the slope from grazing and trampling. The community members monitored the area and prevented grazing.

    Opportunity to test
    The bio-dyke aimed to stabilise the 220 m river bank protecting about six bigha (4.056 hectare) land of 10 families. On the 26 July 2016, one of the biggest recorded floods in the river occurred, providing an opportunity for the community to test the strength of their structure. Although the dyke is yet to naturally stabilise to attain its full strength, it defended the flood well without major damage. The flood was 3 m high and rose over the bioengineering structure but there was no bank cutting and the land at the back was well protected. “There’s also less sand and silt brought in our field,” said Namrata who is one of the land owners. The coordinator of CDMC is ‘pleased to see the success’ and said, “We will extend the dyke further.”

    After bio-dyke construction at Bangalipur, Bardia

    The process built capacity within the community on how to build a bio-dyke. One hundred and thirty five community members worked on the process and have learned how it is done, increasing their awareness on the importance of riverbank protection. “We are now confident, we can do it,” one of the CDMC members said. He informed us that they are approaching local government to advocate for funding allocation to extend the embankment but the ongoing restructuring and elections may ‘lead to waiting for another fiscal year’.

    All information of this story were collected by Buddhi Kumal, Lok Pokharel, Narayan Ghimire and Prakash Khadka.

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  • Making the invisible Eco-Warriors; the informal Waste Pickers, visible


    April 24th, 2017

    I see few of them every morning; first while going for my walk and then while going to my office. They come to the locality little early before the municipal authorized waste pickers come for the waste collection so as they can segregate the reusable items beforehand, collect those and then can sell it to the kabadiwala. I am talking about the “informal waste pickers” who play a big role in keeping the city and neighborhood clean, but don’t get the recognition they deserve. Bhubaneswar generates around 600 tonnes of solid waste per day and the city is providing habitation to around 1500 numbers of waste pickers and their families.

    Some research report shows 90% of discarded recyclable PET (Polyethylene Terephthalate) in India gets recycled, ahead of countries with formalized waste management. Most of these are collected by informal waste collectors who sell it to middlemen who then resell to recycling factories. In most of the cities the same business model is working.

    Go and meet few waste pickers you will clearly observe that lower caste or Dalits and other minorities are mostly performing this task. They belong to the most marginalized sections of the city. Most of them are uneducated and even their children perform the same task. And yes they are associated with dirt. The stray dogs bark at them and even the most of the city dwellers look at them differently.

    The misery is that they clean and appears dirty and we dirt the city and appear clean. Do not you think they do a great job !!! They need recognition for this job which they perform for their livelihood.  As most of them are not educated they are cheated by the middle man and sell their collected materials at a lesser price. As they are not into formal sector they perform the task without any safety gear and put their health at risk. I accept they do this job as per their own wish but from a different angle, they perform the task of the local municipality without being paid for that.

    We at Practical Action initiated a project among the children of the informal waste pickers few years back. And one component of that project was to formalize the informal waste workers and provide them with valid identity card so that they can take the benefit of the government schemes. I am not going to discuss the whole project achievement here, but the field team managed by a local NGO called as CCWD made tremendous efforts with technical support from Practical Action in influencing the municipality to recognize the work of the informal waste works. The project was funded by BVLF for 2 years.

    BMC Mayor Sri Ananta Narayan Jena handing over ID card to waste workers of Bhubaneswar

    When it came to the social security of the Informal waste workers, the state had no provisions for them and one of the major reason was, these waste workers were not identified in the labour category. We continued our advocacy for more than a year with taking up a lot of initiatives. We formed the ‘Abrajana Gotali Mahasangha’ the first of its kind formal union among the waste pickers of the city. A series of training programmes on different safety measures and awareness on getting their basic facilities from the municipality were organised. The union later took this up and went ahead to meet the municipal authorities along with the project staffs. After several meetings and approach, the authority finalized acknowledged the informal waste workers of the city and a process of identification was initiated.

    Deputy commissioner BMC Sri Srimanta Mishra among the waste workers with their ID cards

    The municipality agreed to provide valid identity card to the informal waste pickers and also some additional benefits in terms of safety and social security was assured. Though the project is over but a constant supervision has led to a number of 755 informal waste workers being provided with the identity card. They are now recognized as labours in other category and this makes them eligible to get benefits from various government schemes.

    Yet again, this number is not enough. This is the story of just one city. Odisha has more than 100 urban local bodies where we can find the similar set of people. This is high time, other municipalities and urban local bodies must consider the informal waste workers and provide them with the required social security and safety what they deserve.

    ( Download ‘LIFE DIGNIFIED’ a case study compendium on the said project here. )

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  • Universal energy access: what’s gender got to do with it?


    April 20th, 2017
    Written in partnership with Mariama Kamara, Founder and Director, Smiling Through Light

    The energy sector is traditionally male-dominated with men’s access to better education, skills training, and finance enabling them to develop businesses and access markets that women have often been excluded from as a result of gendered social norms and women’s unpaid care work. In the energy world, the role of women has often been limited to that of consumers; particularly in relation to the household sphere and cooking practices. The benefits of clean cooking fuels and technologies on women and girls is championed on global platforms; and women are being increasingly recognised as important to energy access planning processes. What benefits arise, though, when we embrace and empower women as agents of change who are actively striving for, and driving us towards, Sustainable Development Goal 7 (SDG7)?

    CSW61: Women as Agents of Change

    Last month, at the UN’s 61st session of the Commission on the Status of Women (CSW61), Practical Action hosted a parallel session exploring just that: Women as Agents of Change in Sustainable Energy Access Value Chains. The session, which heard from  Practical Action’s Sudan and East Africa offices, Smiling through Light, Energy Research Institute Sudan, and Solar Sister, demonstrated that investing in women’s potential as entrepreneurs, technicians, policy-makers and thought-leaders is vital for achieving gender-transformative outcomes and more effective energy access approaches.

    Image of the panellists and organising team of Practical Action's event at the 61st Commission on the Status of Women, on women as change agents in sustainable energy access value chains.

    CSW panel members from left to right: Mariama Kamara (Smiling Through Light), Dr Sawsan Sanhory (Energy Research Institute Sudan), Neha Misra (Solar Sister), Muna Eltahir (Practical Action Sudan), Charlotte Taylor (Practical Action), Samah Omer (Practical Action Sudan), Lydia Muchiri (Practical Action East Africa).

    Gender Equality + Sustainable Energy Access = Opportunity for All

    Across the panellists’ different experiences, from the grassroots initiative of Smiling Through Light to the global campaign of Solar Sister, a clear message could be heard: at the intersection of gender equality and sustainable energy access lies vast potential – for women’s economic empowerment, certainly, and also for sustainable development and improved wellbeing for their communities and beyond.

    A briquettes entrepreneur from the Women in Energy Enterprises in Kenya (WEEK) project

    A briquettes entrepreneur from the Women in Energy Enterprises in Kenya (WEEK) project

    The keynote speech, delivered by Lydia Muchiri, Senior Gender and Energy Advisor for Practical Action East Africa, explored the Women in Energy Enterprises in Kenya project (WEEK). Delivered in partnership with Energia, this project empowers women as providers of energy across three value chains – improved cookstoves, solar products, and biomass briquettes – in the roles of producers, suppliers and ‘brand activators’. WEEK project activities support women to build their social capital, develop fundamental business skills, and improve their confidence as entrepreneurs; these women now drive behaviour change, convincing others to adopt clean energy options. Five WEEK project entrepreneurs appeared at the recent SEforAll Forum to share their experiences, demonstrating a growing appetite to hear rural women’s grassroots knowledge on global stages.

    Smiling Through Light: be the change that you want to see

    Smiling Through Light’s Founder and Director Mariama Kamara highlighted the centrality of women’s knowledge, empowerment and collective action to building environmentally sustainable pathways to sustainable energy access; emphasising in particular the diverse roles women play across the energy value chain from production and transportation, to distribution and end use. At the age of nine Mariama left Sierra Leone during the civil war; after later learning that energy use in Sierra Leone was still mostly limited to kerosene for lighting, with no access to clean energy services, she started Smiling Through Light in 2014. By doing so, Mariama became the change she wanted to see. Smiling Through Light now advocates for women, as primary consumers and users of clean energy products, to be integrated into the process of designing appropriate solutions and engaged throughout the value chain to improve their livelihoods.

    The path to SDG7

    There remain many clear opportunities to advance women’s positions across the energy access value chain, including:

    Policy – Advocate for policy that goes beyond perceiving women as victims of energy poverty or mere consumers, but as potential drivers of the sector. Embrace and lobby for the critical role of smaller, distributed energy solutions in addressing rural energy poverty, and women’s unique contribution to this sector.

    Finance – Recognise that women’s access to finance is often constrained by social, political and economic constraints; i.e. collateral requirements based on land or asset ownership. Dedicate specific financing, credit facilities, grants and concessional loans to women’s sustainable energy activities.

    Skills – Address the significant skills and local workforce development gaps in energy access in a way that empowers more skilled women to participate across the value chain, and educates others on the value of their contributions.

    Evidence – Continue to build evidence to help inform policy on why women in clean energy value chains are uniquely positioned to make a lasting impact; bringing local women entrepreneurs and decision-makers’ voices and experiences to the fore.

    An entrepreneur from the Women in Energy Enterprises in Kenya (WEEK) project makes money and heat from waste, selling to customers at market

    An entrepreneur from the WEEK project makes money and heat from waste, selling to customers at market

    As energy access advocates and champions of gender equality we must continue to find opportunities, like at CSW61, to demonstrate the positive impacts that women’s economic empowerment in energy access initiatives has for themselves and their families, as well as their extended communities and international development practice more broadly. We need to continue challenging damaging gendered social norms which disempower women as change-makers; and simultaneously strengthen policy coordination, knowledge sharing, financial inclusion, programmatic partnerships and research to advance women’s participation in sustainable energy development for all.

     

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  • Gender Transformative Change Is Our Priority


    March 31st, 2017

    The gender is at the center in our new Strategic Business Plan (SBP) 2017 to 2020. In terms of gender, the main shift in the strategic period is gender mainstreaming to gender transformation.

    The gender transformation process dedicates to rigorous gender analysis on capacity enhancement, institutional strengthen, research and development of gender responsive policies through meaningful participation of women and men. The transformative change process goes beyond identifying and exploring the symptoms of gender equality, socially constructed norms, attitudes, and relations of power that underline the cause of limitation of men and women.

    In context of Nepal, women are confined to the domestic spheres mostly in rural areas due to socially embedded and culturally accepted gender roles and responsibilities. So, this process examines the questions and seeks to change the rigid gender norms that causes power imbalances by encouraging critical awareness. The change process of gender transformation mainly focuses to unfold the causes and consequences of existing gender values and addresses them accordingly. This change process further encourages the society to promote the position of women by challenging the unequal distribution of resources and allocation regarding the power relationships. There are four different pillars for gender transformative change, they are:

    Pic. 1

    The first and foremost area that needs to be focused is capacity of women’s leadership. It helps to respond to the need and requirement of an organisation’s future strategy. The development of new policies and strengthening of existing policies from gender perspectives support women in leadership and decision making positions. Such policies support including the socially excluded, economically poor, and vulnerable in terms of disaster risk reduction and those deprived of access to information and resources. It further encourages partnering with like-minded government, non-government organisations and civil societies, additionally, the research on GESI helps to provide evidence for the areas of concentration to bring the gender transformation change in an organisation.

    In context of Practical Action, Nepal office, there are two areas that need to focus. They are;

    1. Capacity strengthening and women’s leadership
    • Focus on Women’s Economic Empowerment (WEE) through project activities
    • Capacity building on Gender Responsive Budgeting (GRB) of staff and partners
    • Initiate the Gender Audit through our existing projects
    1. Inclusive policies and partnerships
    • Focus to implement of existing policies and development of new policies/ guidelines if required
    • Partnership with like minded organizations to contribute on GESI areas in the implementation level

    This comprehensive understanding of empowerment requires, not only the increase of women’s individual agency, but also changes to transform the structural barriers in order to shift social and cultural norms. This can be measured by examining three broad  domains of transformative changes on empowerment, they are:

    Agencies: Individual and institutional knowledge, skills and abilities

    Relations: Complex and multi-dimensional and pervasive relationships to analyse through diversified tools and techniques

    Structures: Power relationships governing collective, individual and institutional practices

    Pic. 2

    These dimensions help re-frame the discourse of empower to focus on women’s individual agency to collect responsibilities and actions.

    Overall, the gender transformative change impacts on institutional and individual level through gender inclusive policies keeping the women in front line positions in development interventions. This leads to rights of women along with gender related expectations. Eventually, it provides insights for gender transformative actions at organisation and programme implementation levels. Gender is so central to our new strategy. So, considering our organizational priorities, gender tansformative change is one of them.

     

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  • DRR (Disaster Risk Reduction) has become Urgent


    March 27th, 2017

    On 25th of April 2015, Nepal was hit by a 7.6 magnitude of earthquake followed by several aftershocks. The total value of direct loss and damage of personal and public properties and assets have been estimated at USD7,065m. In that fiscal year (2014/2015) Nepal’s total annual budget was equivalent to around USD6,468m. This clearly shows that the earthquake destroyed properties and assets with value more than the annual budget of the country. The death of 8,979 lives, injuries to over 22,300 people, the scares they left behind in the community and families and the indirect cost of the effects are beyond the estimate of these losses and damages. The cost that incurred during the Rescue and Humanitarian supports, and will incur for the full Recovery, Rehabilitation and Reconstruction are yet to be calculated. The annual GDP of Nepal over past few years is almost stagnant at USD value which is around USD20b. The above estimated value of direct loss and damage by the earthquake makes more than 1/3rd of the country’s GDP. The GDP growth rate is also not encouraging which is limited to below 5% over the past some years ranging mostly between 3 and 4%, and below 1% in the year after the earthquake. So at such a slow GDP growth rate with annual official inflation reaching as high as 10%, the recovery of over 1/3rd (35%) of GDP will definitely take considerable amount of time as the resources otherwise would be used for development will be diverted towards recovery, restoration and reconstruction activities.

    Table 1: Some financial statistics of Nepal

    Fiscal Year Budget (NPR- 000,000) Budget (USD- 000,000)* Projected Growth Rate % Achieved Growth rate (or final projection) % GDP (NPR- 000,000) GDP (USD- 000,000)**
     2011/12 (2068/69)

    384,900

    5,437.21 5.00 4.50 1,558,000

    19,118.91

     2012/13 (2069/70)

    404,820

    4,967.73 3.60 1,708,172

    19,736.24

     2013/14 (2070/71)

    517,240

    5,976.20 5.50 3.50 1,928,850

    20,184.70

     2014/15 (2071/72)

    618,100

    6,468.19 6.00 2.32 1,934,040

    19,398.60

     2015/16 (2072/73)

    819,469

    8,219.35 6.00 0.77 2,130,520

    20,158.20

     2016/17 (2073/74)

    1,048,921

    9,924.51 6.50

    * Nepal Rastra Bank Exchange Rate is used as of April 1 of the previous year

    ** Nepal Rastra Bank Exchange Rate is used as of April 1 of the later year

    Data Sources: Ministry of Finance, Government of Nepal

    (http://www.mof.gov.np/en/archive-documents/economic-survey-21.html,

    http://www.mof.gov.np/en/archive-documents/budget-speech-17.html)

    Another study carried out by Practical Action, IDS-Nepal and G- CAP UK for the Government of Nepal indicates that Nepal suffers a high economic cost due to current climate variability and extreme events. The annual direct cost of current climate variability in Nepal, on average, is estimated to be 1.5 to 2% of the current GDP per year. In extreme years the cost go much higher reaching to 5% or more, a very high cost by international comparison. The indirect cost can be as high as the direct cost resulting the cumulative effects to as high as 10% of GDP during the extreme years, which is increasing in frequency and intensity as the climate has changed. The study focused only on agriculture, hydro-electricity and water induced disasters[1].

    These are just two examples that show how much disasters cost to development of a country, how disasters play roles in pulling development backwards. These examples clearly indicate that without working on disaster risk reduction through systematic assessment of the factors of disaster and addressing them systematically, development cannot move forward. It is clearly seen that if the disaster risk is not addressed, no matter how much there are development achievements; they will be brought down to ground zero or even pushing towards negative leaving unbearable cost to poor countries like Nepal.

    Will Disaster Risk Reduction work?

    A study conducted by Practical Action on Benefit-Cost Analysis of DRR actions indicated a ratio of 1.13- 1.45 even with a conservative methodology. In the same study a little bit liberal methodology indicated the Benefit-Cost Ratio of 2.04. In this study the cost included the cost of the DRR activities and the benefits included the additional benefits that the communities received which otherwise would not be if the DRR activities were not implemented[2].

    Similarly, another study implemented by Mercy Corp indicated that the Benefit-Cost Ratio of DRR activities was 3.49. In this study also a very conservative methodology was applied. Benefits basically included the saved cost or expenses that otherwise could have incurred on humanitarian activities if the DRR activities were not implemented[3].

    So the DRR activities not only save the loss and damage of lives and properties, but they also give benefits to the communities.

    Assessing Risk and Reducing Risk

    The Risk Concept (Figure below) developed by IPCC in its Fifth Assessment Report, Climate Change, 2014 provides a conceptual tool to understand the risk and its elements[4]. Although this concept is basically designed for addressing climate change risk, it is equally useful for systematic analysis and assessment of risk due to any other hazards. In the following paragraphs, attempts have been made on how this concept can be used in practice for Disaster Risk Reduction.

    AR5Risk1

    The conceptual framework indicates that “Risk is a function of Hazard, Exposure and Vulnerability“. As per the AR5 definition of vulnerability, which is different from the definition used in AR4, it covers the sensitivity or susceptibility of an exposed unit or system and its lack of capacity to cope and adapt to effect or impact of a hazard. For simplicity let me use the following relationship.

    Risk ≈ Hazard * Exposure * Vulnerability

    If vulnerability is split into its components (sensitivity and capacity), the following can be the relationship or equation

    ​Risk ≈​Hazard * Exposure * Sensitivity / ​Capacity to cope and adapt

    Based on this equation, an element or system (individual, social, economic, environmental, etc.) is in high risk when –

    • Hazard is high – it is intensive and frequent with spatial and temporal dimensions
    • Exposure is high – there is presence of high number or large unit of elements and systems exposed to hazard during the period / time/ season and in a geographical area (space) where there is occurrence of intensive and frequent hazards
    • Sensitivity is high – the sensitivity or susceptibility of an exposed unit to be harmed or adversely affected is high when the weakness part of the exposed system / unit is high
    • Capacity to cope and adapt is low – the knowledge, skill, social, physical, financial and natural resources that enhance the capacity of the exposed unit are low that is the strength part of the exposed system/ unit is low

     

    So this concept helps simplify risk reduction which is basically

    • Reduce the hazard – the hazard mitigation parts
    • Reduce the exposure – keep the elements / units / system away from the hazard areas and time or period of hazard
    • Reduce the sensitivity or susceptibility – minimise the weaknesses of the exposed elements, units, or systems, if they cannot be removed from area or time of hazard, or even in the period and locations where and when they have been relocated.
    • Strengthen the capacity to cope and adapt – enhance the strength parts of the exposed elements, units, or systems, if they cannot be removed from the hazard areas or period, or even in the period and locations where and when they have been relocated.

    AR5Risk2

    In order to understand the Hazard, Exposure, Sensitivity and Capacity, there is a need of systematic and simple approaches. Where possible scientific and systemic tools and methodologies need to be applied, but where it is not possible, some basic tools and methodologies can be applied in a participatory approach with the communities who are especially the Exposures.

     

    Assessment of Hazard:

    In the concept diagram, there are two hazards 1) extreme weather events which are beyond the natural or usual variability. Such hazards could include Extreme Rainfall, Extreme Hot, Extreme Cold, or any such extremes weather events and 2) any physical or qualitative events as a result of weather events like Flood, Landslides, Sea Level Rise, increase in Salinity, etc. In order to reduce the hazards, an assessment should be carried out on how the trends of these hazards are in terms of frequency and intensity – how frequent and how destructive it is happening, and their seasonality and spatial behaviour – where and when it is happening. The assessment will lead to understand the causes of the hazard and potential actions to reduce the hazard.

     

    Assessment of Exposure:

    AR5 of IPCC defines exposure as “the presence of people, livelihoods, species or ecosystems, environmental functions, services, and resources, infrastructure, or economic, social, or cultural assets in places and settings that could be adversely affected” by hazard. In addition to this, the presence should also look into the timing.

    In order to reduce the exposure, it is straightforward that to reduce “the physical presence of people, livelihoods, species or ecosystems, environmental functions, services, and resources, infrastructure, or economic, social, or cultural assets in places, times and settings that could be adversely affected” by hazard. This is basically relocation of the Exposures if they are movable, and reduce their exposure by putting barriers between hazard and exposure if they cannot be moved or relocated.

     

    Assessment of Sensitivity or Susceptibility

    The Exposure unit, elements or systems have their Weaknesses and Strengths. The weaknesses are the Sensitivity whereas the Strength part is Capacity. The characteristics of weaknesses differ depending upon the Exposure elements and the hazard to which they are exposed.  As for example, if exposure unit is people, the weakness aspects of people may be young age (infant or child), old age (elder above 70), pregnant woman, physical disability, lack of knowledge and skill, etc. If there are more number of people with some or most or all of these characteristics, the population or the people is more sensitive.

    Similarly if it is a building, the sensitivity of the building could be low plinth level, mud-plaster wall, wall system, etc.

    At the system level, the assessment of sensitivity would be more systemic from livelihood asset point of view. This approach will also be used in the assessment of capacity below. So if there is less capacity, there is high sensitivity of a system to hazard and then that result into disaster.

    To reduce the sensitivity, the weakness parts of the exposed element should be reduced. In case of population, it might not be applicable, therefore the exposure and capacity or strength parts of the population should be emphasised.

     

    Assessment of Capacity

    Capacity is the strength part of exposed element, unit or system. The assessment of capacity needs to assess both strength of the exposed element, unit or system and the opportunity that exist to the system, unit or element. Assessment of capacity through livelihood asset approach seems more systemic and convenient. It is because capacity to cope and adapt needs all five assets of livelihood. In case of human resources, the capacity should assess the physical as well as qualitative aspects of human resources including their knowledge of risk and DRR measures and, skills to apply measures and technologies for DRR

    Physical assets like trails and bridges at strategic sites and alternatives to one if damaged, facilities like rescue centres, health centres and market centres, etc. are important both before and after the disasters. Natural resources like water or forest products which make basis for livelihood and provide resources during the time of post-disaster are important to the communities.

    Similarly financial resources at individual as well as at community levels together with financial services are vital for strengthening the capacity of the individual and the communities. The institutions and organisation from both formal and informal sectors are equally important to the communities and individual for enhancing their capacity for DRR. The government policies and plans, and laws are must for the mobilisation of formal resources from the government part. Therefore they play vital roles as well

    So to assess the capacity of the communities for DRR, the five livelihood assets need to be assessed. The assessment should be assessed base on their existence in terms of physical numbers and sizes, and their availability or access of the communities to these resources at the time and place of need.

    Where the assessment shows poor capacity, the DRR actions should focus on strengthening of these assets which will ultimately strengthen the capacity of the individual and the communities to cope and adapt to effects and impacts of climate change and disasters.

    Strengthening livelihood assets of individual and community also enhances the resilience of the individual, communities or the overall system, the exposure

     

     

    [1] IDS-Nepal, PAC and GCAP (2014). Economic Impacts Assessment of Climate Change in Key Sectors in Nepal. IDS-Nepal, Kathmandu, Nepal

    [2] D. Willenbockel (2011) A Cost-Benefit Analysis of Practical Action’s Livelihood-Centred Disaster Risk Reduction Project in Nepal. Brighton: IDS.

    [3] Mercy Corp (?). Cost-Benefit Analysis for Community-Based Disaster Risk Reduction in Kailali, Nepal

    [4] IPCC, 2014: Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

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  • Technologies for bringing back roofs over the heads of earthquake victims


    March 23rd, 2017

    Simple technologies can bring down the cost of house construction and enable the poor earthquake victims build their houses within their means.

    Chhabilal Acharya’s house reduced to a pile of rubbles in less than a minute when the powerful earthquake stuck his village in Laharepauwa Rasuwa on 25th April 2015. His poultry farm, his major source of income, wasn’t spared either. Acharya (62) and his daughter narrowly escaped from the collapsing house.

    Chhabilal explaining how he escaped from the collapsing house

    Chhabilal explaining how he escaped from the collapsing house

    He had built the house in 1995.

    “I gave up even the smallest indulgences in life to save money for the house,“ he said.

    It took him five years to save money for the house as his job at Lagtang National Park would pay very nominal.

    He has been living in a temporary shelter since the earthquake. With his poultry farm gone, his family is scarping by on his meagre pension of $101 a month.

    Government of Nepal has decided to provide $2778 grant to affected households for building house in three instalments. The house should be compliant to the government approved designs to secure the grant. Chhabilal has received the first tranche ($ 500) of the grant. However, he is yet to start building the house.

    “The money is not enough even to prepare ground for foundation and I have no other means to supplement the grant“ he mentioned.

    Chhabilal inside his temporary shelter

    Chhabilal inside his temporary shelter

    Building simple 3-room brick masonry house costs more than $5000 in his village. Stone masonry buildings are equally expensive as the stones are not available locally.

    Chhabilal is planning to take loan from a local money lender by mortgaging all his land at half the value to top on the grant.

    Banks don’t accept farm land in the village as collateral. Hence, for people like Chhabilal who don’t have any other fixed assets, the local money lenders are the only resort for the loan. The money lenders rip them off with the exorbitant interest rate.

    “If my son does well in life, he will be able to pay the loan and release the land,“ Chhabilal said with misty eyes. He knows he may never get the land back as his son is just 16 years old now.

    Two hundred and forty two households in Laharepuawa lost their houses in the devastating earthquake. Only 11 households who are well to do or have family members abroad have built their houses so far. Rest are facing the impossible choice, roof over the head or the land that feed them, like Chhabilal.

    However, simple technologies can save them from this predicament and help them rebuild their house within their means.

    Cement Stabilised Earth Block (CSEB) is one of such simple technologies. It is a very good alternative to bricks. It can be prepared from a simple mixture of local soil, sand and cement (10%). It costs almost three times less than the brick. Besides, it requires less labour and cement mortar to build a house with CSEB. And, it provides better earthquake resistance as the blocks are interlocking. A CSEB compacting machine costs around $ 7000 including installation and all the accessories. The machine can produce up to 450 blocks per day. The pictures below shows the CSEB production at Kalikasthan, Rasuwa. The enterprise was set up with the support of Practical Action.IMG_1508

    IMG_1511

    Another technology which can save cost is a simple stone cutting machine. It can reduce cost of through stones and corner stones, which are mandatory inthe government, approved stone masonry buildings, by 2 to 3 times. A labour can prepare maximum 6 corner/through stones in a day manually whereas as the machine can produce up to 200 pieces of corner stones.

    A simple one story house requires more than 150 corners/through stones, which approximately costs $300, if prepared manually. However, with the machine, the cost can be reduced to $100. The stone cutting machine costs only about $1200.

    Stone cutting Machine set up with the help of Practical Action at Bhorle Rasuwa

    Stone cutting machine set up with the help of Practical Action at Bhorle, Rasuwa

    Practical Action has been promoting the technologies in Nuwakot and Rasuwa districts through a DFID funded project in a small scale.

    It is an irony that better-off households are better poised to receive the government housing grant as they can fully comply with the government standards. Poor households, who are solely dependent on the grant, are at the risk of losing it as the grant is not enough to build government design compliant house. The technologies can avert the risk by reducing the cost of building house.

    Likewise, the technologies can  provide alternative livelihood opportunities to the people in the earthquake affected districts as they can be promoted as the local enterprises. Hence, larger diffusion of such technologies is across the earthquake affected  districts is important not only for accelerating reconstruction but also improving livelihood.

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  • Roxana Añez – Empowered by emergency


    March 22nd, 2017

    Roxana Añez is a Bolivian woman and a mother of nine children. She lives in small indigenous community in Tacana Altamarani which is located onroxana the river Beni, three hours downriver from San Buenaventura.

    Roxana, an intelligent and driven woman, has always wanted to study and increase her knowledge for the benefit of herself and her community. Unfortunately, because of the social and cultural norms, it has not been possible. Like in many other indigenous communities in Bolivia, a woman’s role is to ‘serve’ her husband and children. This meant that Roxana, like other women in Altamarani, had to spend her days walking to the river bank and back to collect water and to do the washing. After these daily chores, there was no time left for anything else.

    “That was our life. To climb up that ravine under the burning sun, with all the bottles of water and clothes that needed washing.”

    In 2014, the course of Roxana’s life suddenly changed. This was the year when heavy rains and flooding tormented the little community in Altamarani. Because of the flooding, the people in the community lost over 80 per cent of their crops. In addition, their access to clean water was cut – leaving the whole community on the brink of survival.

    roxana2Practical Action, in partnership with Christian Aid, responded to the emergency. Based on the analysis of the situation, they quickly identified, that the primary need in the area was clean water. Because of the flooding, the water was difficult to access. In addition to this, the water in river Beni was contaminated, causing severe health problems.

    In order to solve the problem, Practical Action installed a solar-powered water pumping system which is a great technology for emergency response because it does not require any fuel costs. Thanks to this new technology, people in Altamarani now have access to clean water at their homes.

    Because of the installed water pumping system, Roxana no longer spends her days walking to the river bank and back. This means that she finally has time to educate herself and to do other things she has always dreamt of. Shortly after the pumping system was built, she participated in the agroforestry knowledge exchange programme that thought her new, sustainable ways of farming.

    “I have now returned to my community to put all that knowledge into practice. I wish everyone had the opportunity to leave and participate in these kind of activities, so they can learn. I want to keep learning.”

    Because of her knowledge and eagerness to learn, Roxana is now one of the leaders in her community. Together with her husband, she owns a farm that produces fruits and medical plants. In the future, Roxana wants to keep on learning and developing herself for the benefit of the community.

    Did you enjoy this story? If yes, go to our Mother’s Day site  and meet other inspiring women just like Roxana!

    Want to help women like Roxana this Mother’s Day? Our Practical Presents Charity Gift shop offers some amazing Mother’s Day gifts that are designed to transform lives. More information here. 

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  • Story of Kopila Chaudhary — how knowledge transformed my life


    March 20th, 2017

    The gift of material goods makes people dependent, but the gift of knowledge makes them free”, these profound words of E.F.Schumacher still hold true today. In fact, they are the foundation of Practical Action’s last mile knowledge service, Practical Answers. Knowledge sharing, skills development and capacity building allows vulnerable communitieMushroom farmings across the globe to improve their own livelihoods and thrive in future years to come.

    Meet Mrs Chaudhary, a mother to five. She lives in the far west rural region of Nepal. This area has a past. The 17th July 2000 was a milestone in Nepalese history, the day the Government of Nepal abolished the Kamaiya systemthe abolishment of bonded labour. Kamaiyas were freed, Mrs Chaudhary was freed. Yet, life remained difficult. These families were sent to live in Mukta Kamaiya,­ communities of freed bonded labour set up by the government. Life remained difficult for Mrs Chaudhary, although she had been re-housed the promises of rehabilitation had not be fully fulfilled. Wage labour was essential if she was to support her family and change her livelihood for the better:

    “The government had provided us four Kathha (approx. 14,500 sq.ft) of land with some money to start our new life as a freed Kamaiya, but it was insufficient to fulfil the daily needs of the family. I along with my husband worked as daily wage labour for 15 years but still struggled to make ends meet for our family and fulfil our children’s basic needs. Many organisations came to us in past; they sympathised on our situation and showed us hopes and inspirations but almost to no effect.”

    Gyanodaya Community Library and Resource Centre (CLRC), supported by Practical Answers, is located in the area. Owned by the local community, staff knew that the Kamaiya community must be supported through the gift of knowledge. Social mobilisers encouraged individuals, like Mrs Chaudhary, to join their training and learning sessions. These participatory trainings focus on income generation activities and diversification; key skills to improve the livelihoods of these vulnerable communities. Sceptical at first, participants of these sessions are now thriving commercial farmers specialising in agribusiness. Mrs Chaudhary is one of them. Social mobilisers from the CLRC Mushroom farminghad encouraged her to participate, sharing the benefits that neighbouring communities had gained since joining the training. During the training, she learnt how to write business proposals to apply for government grants:


    “Surprisingly, I got a grant of NPR 40,000 (£300) along with some machinery for mushroom farming and now I have started commercial mushroom farming. I was able to produce 50kg of mushroom. With the money, I am building another tunnel to grow 200 more bags… CLRC has built hope on us to change our lives”

    Knowledge sharing and skills development for individuals, like Mrs Chaudhary, enables vulnerable individuals to improve their own livelihoods by their selves, to grow and prosper without handouts. Knowledge empowers. Knowledge empowers women like Mrs Chaudhary to be business women supporting their family, community and growing their own confidence day after day after day.

    Did you enjoy this story? If yes, go to our Mother’s Day site  and meet other inspiring women just like Mrs Chaudhary!

    Want to help women like Mrs Chaudhary this Mother’s Day? Our Practical Presents Charity Gift shop offers some amazing Mother’s Day gifts that are designed to transform lives. More information here

     

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