The great majority of people without access to modern energy services are rural and, rightly, much of the discussion on energy access focuses on how to reach them. However, despite their greater geographical proximity to grid electricity and other supplies of clean energy, people living in poverty in urban areas also lack energy access. The World Bank’s own trials of the Global Tracking Framework demonstrated this for Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo. We need a greater understanding of how people access energy in these contexts, and what the barriers and opportunities are for improving that access. This paper explores these questions in the context of an in-depth study of the Chamanculo C settlement in Maputo, Mozambique.
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