… and it (FSTP) is working …

July 5th, 2018


This is not a normal garden but a constructed wetland with Canna lily and Phragmites karka — components of a decentralized faecal sludge treatment plant (FSTP) at Gulariya municipality in mid-west Nepal. They help treat the faecal sludge and keep the environment clean and unpolluted.

FSTP is a series of treatment process to reduce the pollution levels from faecal sludge. In this treatment series, the first step is to separate the liquids from the solids, treat both liquid and solid seperately where recovery of nutrients and reuse of treated wastewater is done as possible. (Read more)


Safa and Swastha Gulariya project, successfully completed by Practical Action two years ago, initiated the “beyond toilets” approach by constructing a 3 cubic metres per day capacity faecal sludge treatment plant (FSTP) to treat the faecal sludge from pits and septic tanks connected with toilets. Gulariya Municipality also joined hands with the project by procuring a 4 cubic metres capacity cesspool vehicle using its own internal resources.

The project was able to achieve 100% toilet coverage in Gulariya Municipality with construction of 11,000 new toilets. Also, five communities were declared total sanitation communities.

Pictures: (L) FSTP under construction

(R) Cesspool vehicle of Gulariya municipality









Read more:

Gulariya Municipality declared “Open Defecation Free”

More than a toilet

Inclusive toilet – an example of inclusive public sanitation business

FSM in Gulariya Municipality – An arduous journey

After the project completion, Gulariya Municipality was supported to develop a business plan for sustainable operation and maintenance of the FSTP system. The municipality has planned to operate the FSTP system along with solid waste management (SWM) in the same premises. This has helped the municipality to showcase the integrated model for management of solid waste as well as liquid waste. The premises was developed as a solid and liquid waste management (SLWM) facility.

Pictures: (L) Completed FSTP with composting plant and (R) sorting of recyclable plastics

Looking back study

A year after the project completion, an assessment study was carried out to assess the health impact of improved sanitation and environmental sanitation related activities carried out by Safa and Swastha Gulariya project. The specific objective was to ascertain the changes from the project intervention of open defecation free (ODF) and total sanitation on i) incidence and impact of water borne diseases in ODF and total sanitation communities of targeted peoples, and ii) impact on health due to i) sanitation improvement (ODF) and ii) integrated WASH (total sanitation). An abstract of this assessment can be assessed at WECC37.

The 1% requirement

The data collected during the assessment period showed 1.1% equivalent to 1 household had no access to toilet. The main reason behind this was the filling of pit connected to the toilet and the family reverting back to the practice of open defecation as they did not have the service of mechanised emptying of pits after they get filled up.

This 1% shows the importance of faecal sludge management for mechanical emptying of pits and septic tanks in the municipality to sustain the long gained behaviour change to construct and use toilets in the home rather than practising open defecation.


What is happening now?

The Gulariya FSTP is under operation now and the municipality is providing the on-demand service for emptying service. Cracked sludge cakes and liquid percolating out through collection system is showing the sludge drying beds are working in order. The main function of sludge drying beds is to retain the solid part on top and let the liquid (waste water) percolate to anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) for further treatment.

Pictures: Sludge drying beds (L and M) and wastewater coming out of sludge drying bed (R)

And finally the treated wastewater from ABR is further treated using constructed wetland with horizontal flow bed planted with Canna lily and Phragmites karka.

Picture: Horizontal flow sub-surface constructed wetland

2 responses to “… and it (FSTP) is working …”

  1. Urvashi Prasad Says:

    It is great that FSTP is working at Gularia. I recently visited the site along with Prajwal.. The most important feature is the community is well aware about the project and still active. also the Municipality has spent more than Double the cost of FSTP to make a dumping shed, toilet etc.

    Now if the time to consolidate the efforts put in by PA and work on Solid waste Management Part apart from replication in other parts of Nepal and adjoining Uttar Pradesh, India too.

  2. Lucy Stevens Says:

    Really good to see us reporting back and assessing the impacts of the project after it has officially closed. It’s always so exciting to see how these things work in practice and after they have been handed over. Thank you for sharing this detailed update!

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