Rosalind Watson

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Recommended reading: http://www.practicalaction.org

Posts by Rosalind

  • Snapshots of pastoralist life

    December 12th, 2014

    Practical Action has been working with communities in North Darfur to support 15,000 families across 30 villages with the tools and capacities they need to plan development and distribute both internal and external resources equitably through three interventions:

    1/ Conflict and natural resource management e.g. promotion of early maturing crop varieties that allow farmers to harvest before the incursion of animal herders on to their farms.

    2/ Livelihood and food security e.g. supporting community organisations which aim to increase production and productivity by reclaiming more wadi (clay) land.

    3/ strengthening farmers’ voices and influencing development polices.

    Of the 15,000 families and 30 villages covered by the programme, these recent photos capture just a snapshot of the various pastoralist families and communities who are being impacted by Practical Action’s work:

     

    Pastoralist CBO18.11.2014 (57) 

    Pastoralist CBO18.11.2014 (23)

    Pastoralist CBO18.11.2014 (123)

    2014.07.26 Tarrace training Shagra A (56)

    Terrance training, Shagra

    Pastoralist CBO18.11.2014 (104)

    Pastoralist CBO18.11.2014 (42)

    Photo credit: all photos Awadalla Hamid Mohamed

     

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  • Community forest celebrations in Darfur

    October 7th, 2014

    I remember these bushes when they were tiny seedlings, knee high to a grasshopper. Now you have to jump to look over…’

    Five years ago Nadia Ibrahim Mohammed from Shagra village, 25km west of El Fasher, attended the ‘Greening Darfur’ inception workshop. The purpose of Greening Darfur was to rehabilitate and develop natural resources where vegetation cover had been lost (potentially leading to desertification, dust storms, a rise in temperature and reduced rainfall impacting on communities, their livestock and agricultural production). At the workshop Nadia learned about developing community forests. The aim of community forests are to regenerate vegetation cover, helping to protect villages and farmland from desertification.

    After attending the workshop Nadia decided to establish a community forest. Nadia mobilised the community, especially women’s groups as she is head of the local Women’s Development Association. Read about Nadia’s full story here

    The tiny seedlings from five years ago turned into strong trees today. Last month Shagra’s community forest was named a best example on National Tree Day.

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    Celebrations at the Shagra Community Forest on National Tree Day. Photo credits: Awadallah Hamid

    Read more about community forests here

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  • DIFD launches new #IntDev Funding Finder

    September 3rd, 2014

    DFID have launched a new #IntDev ‘Funding Finder’ tool:

    funding-finder

    Photo credit: DFID

     

    This tool will be extremely helpful for Practical Action and other organisations in many ways, not in the least that it increases transparency and access to information about DFID funding through its clear layout, up to date information on funding and well considered filters; enabling users to get to the details straight away and clarify the next steps needed to follow up on the application process. The tool has been well thought out in this respect, including the contact details of focal organisations/persons and attaching form templates and links to more information if these have not been directly provided by DFID.

    The signposting aspects included by DFID have gone a step further than simply listing funds; they help organisations in navigating the funding application process. This extra step will help both the organisations applying for funding and DFID itself. Organisations will know sooner whether a fund is suitable for them or not, and enables identification of funding they might not have been aware of without the tool. This is important for organisations who have less networking capacity than ourselves and other medium-large INGOs. The Funding Finder is fostering a level playing field, important in getting funds to the most suitable and best placed organisations to deliver it.

    A blog by Frances Sibbet (Digital Service Lead at DFID) explains more about the thinking behind the tool. Some of the key priority areas to address before the launch of the Funding Finder included:

    • Getting all information about DFID funds up to date
    • Getting the layout and information consistent
    • The need for plain English and not ‘development speak’
    • A notification at the top of some of the fund pages to alert people to key dates (such as deadlines) to help them in their planning

    Frances adds: ‘One feature we would like to add is an email notification so people can sign up to receive an email when new funds are added, or new funding windows are open.’

    The Funding Finder provides a practical tool for navigating the changes of the ever evolving funding landscape. Most importantly it facilitates an environment where funding will more efficiently be delivered to those who need it most.

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  • Photo opportunity

    August 21st, 2014

    A development worker called Sam was tasked with writing a report on a project that had recently begun in a country in Sub-Saharan Africa. Photos of the people who would be impacted by the project were needed for the report. Sam reached one of the villages that would be benefitting from the project and while talking to the local people started scanning the faces for potential photo opportunities. Spotting a mother and child in ragged clothing stood in a doorway, Sam went over to ask their names. The mother was called Irene and her daughter was called Patience. Sam asked if it would be ok to name them in the report as examples of people who would be impacted by the project and take their photo so that people who were interested in the project would be able to put faces to names. Sam explained how the photograph would be used in the report, and that it would be seen by many people in the UK and potentially elsewhere as they had supporters all over the world, and would ultimately raise awareness about the project. Immediately Irene said she had to go but would return in an hour for the photo.

    After more than one hour she returned with Patience, they were both wearing brand new clothes. She had been to the market to buy the clothes because she and Patience needed to look their best for the photo. She had been saving for a new dress anyway and now was the perfect time to buy one. Her wraparound skirt, plain t-shirt with a hole and flip flops had been replaced with a dress and shoes. Her little girl wore a bow in her hair. This wasn’t the photo Sam wanted…..

    Last month the Irish Association of Non-governmental Development Organisations (Dochas) released an Illustrative Guide to its ‘Code of Conduct on Images and Messages.’ The Code is based on 7 guiding principles:

     

    Principle 1: Choose images and related messages based on values of respect, equality, solidarity and justice.

    For Irene, the clothes she and her daughter were wearing were important in communicating respect and dignity. Did Sam respect the fact that for Irene, the clothes she wore presented her as either a dignified or undignified person?

    Principle 2: Truthfully represent any image or depicted situation both in its immediate and in its wider context, so as to improve public understanding of the realities and complexities of development.

    Irene wanted to be photographed in a different state to the one Sam found her and Patience in. Although this wasn’t communicating the ‘truth’ as Sam saw it, Irene had the capacity to buy luxury items at the time, and wanted to communicate another truth. Was it wrong for her to change Sam’s ‘truth?’ Or was it wrong for Sam to assume there was one single truth to be communicated?

    Principle 3: Avoid images and messages that potentially stereotype sensationalise, or discriminate against people, situations or places.

    Would the photo Sam wanted to take sensationalise Irene and Patience’ situation? Would the photo make them look more vulnerable and suffering from ‘a life of drudgery’ than was true?

    Principle 4: Use images, messages, and case studies with the full understanding, participation and permission of the subjects (or the subjects’ parents/guardians)

    If Sam explained the reasons behind why the ragged clothes would look best, would Irene still agree to be photographed; knowing that it was Irene and Patience’s ‘indignity’ that Sam wanted to communicate most of all?

    Principle 5: Ensure those whose situation is being represented have the opportunity to communicate their stories themselves

    Irene had a different story to communicate about her life and the life of her daughter to the one that Sam wanted to communicate. She wanted to take the opportunity to communicate it.

    Principle 6: Establish and record whether the subjects wish to be named or identified and always act accordingly

    Irene wanted to be identified, but would she feel the same knowing that what she most wanted to change about the photograph was what Sam most wanted to communicate to the world?

    Principle 7: Conform to the highest standards in relation to human rights and the protection of vulnerable people

    The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) states that all human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. For Irene, the clothes she and her daughter wear communicate dignity and respect. If Irene is ‘born free in dignity’ she should also be free to have control over the things she associates with dignity, like clothing.

    ……..Does what happens next matter?

     

     

    dochas

    Photo credit: Dochas Network

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  • 10 highlights from the Monitoring, Evaluation and Learning issue of the Gender & Development Journal

    July 28th, 2014

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  • ‘Untouchables’ negotiate their terms in Jessore, Bangladesh

    July 11th, 2014

    ‘It’s true that, at least in the public sphere, the Dalit community has made progress since the days within living memory when they were beaten if their shadow touched a higher caste person, wore bells to warn of their approach, and carried buckets so their spit wouldn’t contaminate the ground.’ – National Geographic

     Caste vs. Constitution

    Making up approximately 20% of the populations of India, Pakistan, Nepal, and Bangladesh, the Dalit community is excluded from the caste system altogether, but sometimes referred to as a ‘scavenger’ caste, within which are more divisions, the lowest considered to be litter pickers, toilet cleaners, those preparing bodies for funerals, removing dead animals from roads and killing rats and other pests.

    Under the 1950 India constitution the Dalit community was afforded affirmative action (in education and hiring quotas) and the concept of untouchability officially banned under Article 17. The Prevention of Atrocities Act in 1989 made it illegal amongst other actions to take away their land, interfere with their right to vote and burn down their homes.

    However Dalits continue to face discrimination, especially in rural areas where access to communal water sources are restricted and land ownership is rare: ‘Most rural Dalit’s earn their living as agricultural laborers or as collectors of human waste to be used as fertilizer.’

    In 2010 the Robert K Kennedy Centre for Justice and Human Rights identified 98 distinct practices across 1589 villages pertaining to caste based discrimination (Page 5) including a ban on hiring cooking pots for weddings, smoking a pipe, touching vegetables in a shop and driving through a village in a vehicle.

    Rural to urban movement

    Many Dalit families left rural areas to live in the rapidly growing cities, usually in slum areas, and are often exploited. Many are not allowed to rent outside their communities .Urban services (water, sanitation, hygiene, waste management) are often not accessible to poorer communities. This is a combined failure of planning, financial and management capacity and governance. The fact that the Dalit community has little say in the services provided to them means that they rarely see improvements in access to services in their own communities. The conditions in which they live make it difficult for them to form effective representative organisations.

    Delivering Decentralisation: slum dwellers’ access to decision making for pro-poor infrastructure services

    Participatory planning

    Participatory planning

    Delivering Decentralisation focuses on improving the lives of 36,000 slum dwellers by enabling communities to engage in the planning and decision making processes of local government, helping them to form effective representative organisations to ensure that they are able to improve the delivery of public services in their area.The programme is taking place in Bangladesh, Nepal and Sri Lanka, in Faridpur & Jessore (Bangladesh), Butwal and Bharatpur (Nepal), Kurunegala and Akkaraipattu (Sri Lanka) fromApril 2012 – March 2016. Partners in Bangladesh include the Society for the Urban Poor (Faridpur, Bangladesh) and Development of Health and Agriculture Rehabilitation Advancement (Jessore, Bangladesh).

    Old Pourasava, Jessore

    One of the focus areas is Old Pourasava, one of 5 Dalit wards in Jessore, established in 1946. The main profession of the community is cleaning and empting safety pits and sewerage lines.

     At the beginning of the project the community had only two toilets for 80 women and 65 men. There was a water tap coming from the municipality water supply line. People would fetch water twice a day (7am-10am and 12pm-6pm). There was one tubewell which remained out of order most of the time.

    Practical Action worked with the Dalit community in Jessore to help them form elected representative organisations (Settlement Improvement Committees) to lobby for improvements to the delivery of public services in their area. The election process was participatory with the supervision of an electoral body consisting of the Municipality Mayor, Councilors, Executive Director (or Field Coordinator) of partner organisations and representatives from Practical Action. The community also formed a Society Development Federation (SDF) as a platform to communicate and coordinate with Municipality, partners and other development agencies for different services like education, health and income generating activities. The committees have been elected for 2 years.

    Coordination meeting

    Coordination meeting

    The community then prepared a participatory plan using social mapping, resource mapping, well-being analysis, Chapati diagrams, and priority ranking of needs. They identified and prioritised needs to address demand by seeking funding from development partners, the municipality and other potential service providers, providing a road map to the community for their next course of action. Before finalisation the action plan was shared with Municipality Councillors in the presence of the whole community.

     

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    Sharing the action plan

     

    For community leaders to observe how development was being achieved in a similar context, exposure visits were organised to Gaibandha Municipality to gather knowledge on waste-to- compost, waste-to-biogas and other techniques which could be replicated in Old Pourasava.

    Practical Action supported the community in the design, procurement and construction of drainage and footpaths. Prior to construction, the community volunteered to remove uncollected and accumulated waste.

     

    Women and girls

    Clearing waste in preparation for laying new footpath and drainage systems

    Clearing waste in preparation for laying new footpath and drainage systems

    The association and its members are motivating adult female and adolescent girls to diversify their economic opportunities to supplement family income to invest in better health and education for their children. Links with organisations who can support training and income generating activities as well as childcare have been made (e.g. Family Planning Association of Bangladesh). 

    Challenges to the programme

    The programme faced challenges to ensure the participation of extremely poor people in the planning and monthly meetings of slum improvement committees due to their long working hours. The programme also faced challenges in bringing synergy between different community associations; the community expressed concern that if they join other existing associations their special agenda inclusion will be lost since they would become a minority in a federation. Sharing meetings to discuss views, planning and progress were organised between other community organisations while they remained separate entities.

     

    Beyond the programme

    51dffcbb-66e4-4859-8327-6ed90a000074_WyI2MDB4NjAwIiwic2NhbGUiXQAfter Practical Action helped to facilitate development planning, a new organisation was formed with the aim of making Dalit settlements healthy and liveable through access to inclusive services. The organisation is helping 6 Dalit communities develop their neighbourhood plans, led by their respective community associations.

    Members participated in Jessore Municipality’s pre-budget meeting and expressed the priority areas in which they want to draw down support from the annual development budget of Jessore town.

     

    The project is advocating for Jessore Municipality to bring other stakeholders in to support other priorities reflected in their neighbourhood plans. Community Association leaders are also negotiating with non-state development agencies for access to doorstep health and education services at fair prices. The Association approached bodies such as the District Social Welfare, the District Women Affairs Office amongst other development agencies, and was successful in receiving different types of income generation training for the Dalit community. These follow on actions are building the aspiration of a healthy living environment and fuller integration into society; building relationships and accessing services and resources which will leverage change beyond the close of the programme in 2016.

     

     

     

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  • Turning outrage into action

    June 4th, 2014

    Acts of violence against women continue to shock the Indian national consciousness. While open defecation remains the scourge of India and has ratcheted gender and social inequalities to breaking point, one state is putting the wheels of change into motion.

    Gauging commitment to the rights of women and girls

    India has one NGO for every 600 people. Uttar Pradesh contains more NGOs than any other Indian state. Five organisations explicitly dealing with women and girls appear in the A-C categories alone of an NGO state directory. These were merely the English results; the majority of organisations are titled in Hindi or Urdu.

    At the end of May in Uttar Pradesh two girls from impoverished Dalit families without a toilet in their home were gang raped and murdered while they were in the fields looking for a safe place to relieve themselves. Only yesterday another girl was murdered in the same state, in the same circumstances. In light of the relentless brutalities Ratna Kapur writes in The Hindu: ‘India is a country that is at war with no one — and yet, the levels of violence that are inflicted on women and that have come to be tolerated seem comparable to levels seen in conflict zones.’

    Last month Odisha released its final draft State Policy on Women and Girls, calling for action to address safety and empowerment issues for women and girls in sectors as wide ranging as special needs and transportation.

    Uttar Pradesh has no such policy, at least no updated version, illustrating the disparity and incoherence that exists between states regarding actions of NGOs (who may or may not be registered and active), other actors implementing change on the ground, and the policies formulated at state level.

    Therefore, in some areas the existence of state policy papers, rather than NGO presence, is more effective in gauging the extent to which initiatives will be implemented locally, such documents pertaining to a will at strategic level to change lives.

    Our Communications Director has voiced the wider issues surrounding violence against women here.

    Pinky Das

    Pinky Das is 8 years old and goes to school in Odisha. Like many women and girls across India who lack access to proper sanitation facilities she faced the dilemma of waiting for a safe time to go to the toilet, a habit which practiced over extended periods of time can lead to urinary tract infections. The alternative was to go into the fields to practice open defecation, leaving her vulnerable.

    As there were no sanitation facilities accessible to Pinky in school (except a ‘teachers only’ toilet), she was forced to go to the fields on a regular basis, and eventually decided to stop because of unwanted attention from male students. Holding her bladder led to infection, and she eventually dropped out of school.

    Practical Action began interventions in Odisha in a number of thematic areas including urban services and Pinky was able to benefit from the changes. She heard news about the sanitation upgrades while at home. When she recovered was able to come back to school and now attains full attendance.

     

    Pinky - Improved attendance and school life because of Practical Action

     

    Pinky’s story illustrates that women and girls across the social spectrum face a common dilemma when it comes to open defecation. While she had no amenities at school, many lack a toilet at home.

    Extending protection to women and girls from Dalit families

    The girls from Uttar Pradesh had no toilet in their home. Ban Ki-Moon called it ‘appalling‘. They were from Dalit families who are even more vulnerable because hardly any social protection measures are extended to them. Crimes against Dalits often go unreported, investigations fall through and there is a vast backlog of cases. Conviction rates are low for the few crimes that are followed up and police collusion with perpetrators to cover up crime from dominant castes is rife. Amnesty International have called for police personnel found to have refused to register or investigate complaints to be held accountable, aiming to address not only explicit attacks but the deeply ingrained crimes of omission when it comes to women and girls from Dalit backgrounds.

    The draft Odisha policy contains a section on provisions for ‘Women and Girls with Special Needs,’ which includes marginal groups (19 other vulnerable types of girls and women have been identified under this category including HIV/AIDS affected women, abandoned, divorced and deserted women, the elderly, the disabled, prison inmates, unmarried women, bonded labourers and more have been referred to). The draft goes a long way in reaching out to women who find themselves vulnerable for all kinds of reasons. Women and girls from Dalit backgrounds would be provided for under this section.

    There is also a ‘Safety, Security and Protection’ section which includes strategies to:

    • Establish specialised units in the police department to guide, monitor and support investigations pertaining to violence against girls and women.
    • Fix timeframes for completion of investigation and trial in matters of crime against girls and women.
    • Establish specialised and designated courts for rapid trial of sexual offences.

    A precedent

    The draft policy on Women and Girls was released on 8th May, days before the series of Uttar Pradesh murders. Its lament speaks not just for Odisha but the whole of India when it reads: ‘There is a disturbing trend of brutal incidences of violence which has shaken the collective conscience.’

    If shared, built on and integrated with other services and targeted NGO work, initiatives like this will pave the way for the collective conscience to effectively turn outrage into action.

     

     

     

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  • The Chronic Poverty Report 2014/15

    March 31st, 2014

     The Chronic Poverty Report 2014/15

    The publication of the Chronic Poverty Report 2014/15 launched by the Overseas Development Institute can serve as a challenge to ask – who are the chronic poor and how are they being impacted by Practical Action’s programmes?

    Chronic poverty as a term captures something of the experience of people who endure long term gruelling poverty etched out over extensive periods of their lives (living permanently below the poverty line) and will most probably be transferred to their children. Up to half a billion people are chronically poor, the majority of whom live in vast rural swathes of South East Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. Alongside the publication of the 2014/15 report the ODI released a set of infographic case studies, illustrating the multidimensional factors which characterise the life trajectories of chronically poor people:

    life-history-map-emanueli_531b7c99dedae_w1500life-history-map-amin_531b7d49e67f6_w1500

    Amongst other sources the report uses household panel surveys to show that since the turn of the 21st century, descents into poverty have been nearly as widespread as escapes from poverty over certain periods of time in many developing contexts, and to this end argues that three approaches need to be taken: 1/ addressing chronic poverty 2/ preventing impoverishment (falling back into poverty) 3/ sustaining poverty escapes.

    However, Duncan Green’s blog on the report: ‘Is Getting to Zero Really Feasible?’ reflected on the potential cross purposes the approach could generate, given that ‘governments and donors have only limited cash…in some contexts, prevention may provide better social return on investment than a cure…the report may have scored an own goal, inadvertently making the case for not targeting the chronically poor in some situations.’ Which begs the question: will the impetus fall on preventing the slide back into chronic poverty for ‘new escapees’ rather than address those who have always been chronically poor?

    This made for an interesting thread of debate on the blog, where Chiara Mariotti (one of the authors of the report), said of the approach: ‘it reminds us that chronic poverty is not an issue separated from other problems,’ and Charles Knox-Vydmanov at HelpAge reflected: ‘The real question for me is whether people are chronically poor because of who they are (and belonging to a certain “vulnerable group”) or because of what happens to them…if we believe the latter, then surely we need to focus on targeting these things, and not the people…poor people are not all poor all of the time, so who exactly do you target?’ This is reflected in the case studies; the lives of Emanueli and Amin are punctuated by events which might raise them above the parapet of the poverty line for a time (e.g. when Emanueli gained income and assets from fishing), illustrating the picture painted of ‘the poor’ is never black and white, nor are the complex systems in which they are engaged.

    What do Practical Action’s programmes do to help step people up from chronic poverty, and are the wider aspects surrounding the chronic poverty debate (above) addressed via programmes? Some snapshots below provide examples of programmes impacting the chronic poor:

    SHIREE/Pathways from Poverty, Bangladesh  

    Practical Action’s ‘Pathways from Poverty’ project is contributing to SHIREE (the Bangla word for steps and an acronym for Stimulating Household Improvements Resulting in Economic Empowerment), a massive multi-stakeholder programme between the UK Department for International Development (DFID), Swiss Development Cooperation (SDC) and Government of Bangladesh (GoB) to lift 1 million people out of extreme poverty by 2015. The people benefitting from SHIREE fall well within the poorest 10% of the Bangladeshi population. This marginalised segment of the population includes households who are often affected by chronic malnutrition; insecure employment; lack of shelter; landlessness; limited or no assets; little social or political capital; limited ability to withstand shocks; and poor access to health, education and other basic services. Pathways from Poverty will reach 31,850 households by 2015 through asset protection schemes, generation of employment opportunities and diversification of livelihoods options. Overall SHIREE is helping the poorest households who have failed to benefit from economic growth, social protection mechanisms and other development programmes. In particular the focus is on:

    • Those who are economically active yet marginalised (e.g. fragmented female-headed households and socially excluded ethnic minorities).
    • Those who are economically inactive and rely heavily or solely on charity or government safety nets (e.g. the disabled or elderly without family support).
    • Women and children in the above categories. In trying to halt the inter-generational transfer of poverty, the programme targets women and children in extreme poor households.

    Socio-economic Empowerment of Tsunami Affected Communities, Sri Lanka  

    The report highlights the increasing polarisation between the poorest and the rest of the population, particularly evident in patterns of land ownership: ‘The stories of the poorest are full of lost access to common land and water bodies through privatisation, land grabs or evictions.’ SET (Socio-empowerment of Tsumani Affected Communities) made possible via Big Lottery funding, is impacting the lives of chronic poor fisher communities by enabling them to increase their income through interventions such as rehabilitation of abandoned water bodies for fishing, improved access of water for agricultural and domestic purposes and ice manufacturing to reduce fish wastage. Fishermen in Koggala have noted a 3 fold increase in income from prawn fishing. One major success of SET was the establishment of strong community institutions through Village Coordination Committees, which has led to the inclusion of some of the most marginalised communities in the fisheries sector development programmes, including the indigenous Vaddha community. Practical Action is currently working with the Dutch Development Agency ZOA to replicate aspects of the SET project model.

    Reducing Vulnerability in North Darfur, Sudan

    The 2014/15 report devotes a section to conflict, stating this as the biggest challenge in, echoing the UN who state that by 2015 an estimated half of the world’s poor will be living in fragile states. The International Fund for Agricultural Development says ‘Poverty in the Sudan is deeply entrenched and is largely rural. Poverty particularly affects farmers who practise rain-fed agriculture. People living in areas that have been or continue to be affected by drought and conflict – particularly in the south and Darfur – are the most vulnerable to poverty.’

    In North Darfur dispute over natural resources (mostly over water for drinking and agriculture) and migratory routes have caused conflict. Practical Action has been working with communities in North Darfur to support 15,000 families across 30 villages with the tools and capacities they need to plan development and distribute both internal and external resources equitably through three interventions: 1/ Conflict and natural resource management (e.g. promotion of early maturing crop varieties that allow farmers to harvest before the incursion of animal herders on to their farms). 2/ Livelihood and food security (e.g. supporting community organisations which aim to increase production and productivity by reclaiming more wadi (clay) land). 3/ strengthening farmers’ voices and influencing development polices. A new Integrated Water Resource Management Programme funded by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) to commence this year aims to  directly benefit over 87,000 farmers and agro-pastoralists through the construction of 3 dams and 1,000 terraces so that water resources are better shared and utilised for community livelihood practices.

    The 2014/15 report states that ‘aid will continue to be extremely important in low income countries but few donors have displayed real interest in tackling chronic poverty.’ The examples provide only snapshots of the diverse nature Practical Action’s programmes addressing chronic poverty, and the organisations it works with to deliver them. This is an encouragement given the broad spectrum of their global outlooks and processes, and illustrates the broad range of donors who do have an appetite to address not only chronic poverty but the wider complex systems in which the chronic poor live and work.

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