Greywater Use in the Middle East
Technical, Social, Economic and Policy Issues
Edited by Stephen McIlwaine and Mark Redwood
In water-scarce areas of the Middle East, greywater (household wastewater excluding toilet waste) is commonly used by poor communities to irrigate home gardens. This both supplements the water available to the household and improves food security. This book draws together material presented at a conference in Jordan in 2007, and examines the technical approaches to treating and using greywater for irrigation, including its associated risks to health and the environment. It discusses many of the non-technical issues that influence effectiveness and sustainability of greywater use. It also takes a hard look at economic issues, arguing that more clarity and consistency from policymakers is essential if low-income, water-stressed communities are to make better and safer use of their existing water supplies. The book concludes by offering suggestions for where donor efforts and research could best be focused in the near future.
Greywater Use in the Middle East is important reading for researchers, donors, implementing agencies, and policymakers, in the fields of water supply, water reuse, livelihoods and agriculture.
"Greywater use may not solve the water crisis, but this book sheds light and important research on its potential to contribute something to the solution. It proposes information and technological solutions to both reduce the stigma associated with greywater use, while providing straightforward options to policy makers."
Eglal Rached, Cairo Regional Director, IDRC
"Greywater is a recognized vital irrigation supply source here in Southern Arizona. We have come a significant distance from the days when greywater use was forbidden. This new comprehensive reference provides a compelling argument for the use of greywater in the Middle East providing the varied expertise and experience required for its safe and practical use in a single, concise document; this is clearly a positive step forward. Hopefully, this book will lead to further funded research and demonstration projects that address its questions and preliminary conclusions."
Professor Richard Brittain, Department of Architecture, University of Arizona
"This book is timely in many ways: timely, because of the increasing problem of freshwater scarcity in many parts of the world; timely, because the resilience of our water supply and hydraulic systems in the face of climate change is in question; timely, because the health, livelihood and nutritional status of peri-urban populations are under threat. The book’s specific focus takes greywater out of the shadow of wastewater and excreta use in agriculture and highlights new opportunities to contribute to poverty alleviation."
Robert Bos, World Health Organization, Department of Public Health and Environment
Stephen McIlwaine is the Director of the Center for the Study of the Built Environment, Jordan.
Mark Redwood is the Programme Leader for the Urban Poverty and Environment Initiative at the International Development Research Centre, Canada.
HE Dr Munther Haddadin, former Minister of Water and Irrigation, Jordan
Stephen McIlwaine and Mark Redwood
The Aqaba Declaration on Greywater Use
Acronyms and abbreviations
1. Introduction: Greywater use in the Middle East – the story so far
PART I: TECHNICAL ASPECTS
2. On-site greywater treatment in Qebia Village, Palestine
3. Greywater use in rural home gardens in Karak, Jordan
4. Greywater management in the northeastern Badia of Jordan
PART II: SOCIOECONOMIC ASPECTS 5. Stakeholder participation in greywater management in the Jordanian Badia
6. Comparative socioeconomic study of greywater and cesspit systems in Ramallah, Palestine
7. Can local people accept greywater technology?
8. Lessons from a participatory approach to household greywater use in Jordan
9. Greywater use as a gender empowerment project in Tannoura, Lebanon
10. Greywater use: Islamic perspectives
PART III: POLICY ISSUES AND NEXT STEPS
11. Policy and regulatory approaches to greywater use in the Middle East
12. Conclusion: Next steps for research, policy and implementation