PICKLED LEAFY VEGETABLE
Gundruk is particularly popular in Nepal. The annual production of gundruk in Nepal is
estimated at 2,000 tons and most of the production is carried out at the household level. Gundruk is obtained by fermenting and drying leafy vegetables (saag) to produce a sour brownish black product. It is served as a side dish with the main meal and is also used as an appetiser and can be made into a soup.
Gundruk is an important source of minerals
particularly during the off-season in rural areas when the diet consists of mostly starchy tubers and maize which tend to be low in minerals.
Figure 1: Preparing leafy vegetables. Photo:
Practical Action Nepal.
Raw material preparation
In the months of October and November, during the harvest of the first broad mustard, radish , spinach and cauliflower leaves, large quantities of leaves accumulate - much more than can be consumed fresh.
These leaves are allowed to wilt for one or two days and then shredded with a knife or sickle. The shredded leaves are tightly packed in an earthenware pot and warm water (at about 30oC) is added to cover all the leaves. The pot is then kept in a warm place. After five to seven days, a mild acidic taste indicates the end of fermentation and the gundruk is removed and dried, traditionally by the sun. This process is similar to sauerkraut production except that no salt is added to the shredded leaves before the start of gundruk fermentation. The ambient temperature at the time of fermentation should be about 18oC.
Figure 2: The leaves are packed into earthenware pots. Photo: Practical Action Nepal.
Pediococcus and Lactobacillus species are the predominant micro-organisms during gundruk
fermentation. During fermentation, the pH drops slowly to a final value of 4.0 and the amount of
Practical Action, The Schumacher Centre, Bourton on Dunsmore, Rugby, Warwickshire, CV23 9QZ, UK T +44 (0)1926 634400 | F +44 (0)1926 634401 | E email@example.com | W www.practicalaction.org ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Practical Action is a registered charity and company limited by guarantee. Company Reg. No. 871954, England | Reg. Charity No.247257 | VAT No. 880 9924 76 | Patron HRH The Prince of Wales, KG, KT, GCB
acid (as lactic) increases to about 1% on the sixth day. It has been found that a disadvantage with the traditional process of gundruk fermentation is the loss of 90% of the carotenoids, which help to produce vitamin A, probably during sun-drying. Improved methods of drying might reduce the vitamin loss. The Sasto solar dryer has been developed in Nepal for use in rural areas. Once processed the dried gundruk can be kept in airtight containers for several months.
How to make gundruk flow diagram
Leafy vegetables Wilt Shred Placed in earthen pot Cover the leaves Ferment night. Add warm water Dried
One to two days
The leaves need to tightly packed Cover the leaves with warm water and straw The pot is kept warm in the sun and by a fire by To keep the pot warm Product dried on mats in the sun
References and further reading
Chiuri (The Butter Tree of Nepal) Practical Action Technical Brief Kawal: Fermented Green Leaves, Practical Action Technical Brief Traditional Foods: Processing for Profit by P. Fellows, Practical Action Publishing, 1997 Fermented Fruit and Vegetables: A Global Perspective by M. Battcock & S. Azam Ali FAO,
Pickles a selection of Practical Action Technical Briefs
Practical Action Nepal Pandol Marga, Lazimpat P O Box 15135, Kathmandu Nepal Tel: + 977 1 444 6015 / + 977 1 209 4063 Fax: + 977 1 444 5995 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: www.practicalaction.org/nepal Practical Action The Schumacher Centre Bourton-on-Dunsmore Rugby, Warwickshire, CV23 9QZ United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0)1926 634400 Fax: +44 (0)1926 634401 E-mail: email@example.com Website: http://practicalaction.org/practicalanswers/
Practical Action is a development charity with a difference. We know the simplest ideas can have the most profound, life-changing effect on poor people across the world. For over 40 years, we have been working closely with some of the world’s poorest people - using simple technology to fight poverty and transform their lives for the better. We currently work in 15 countries in Africa, South Asia and Latin America.
By Neil Noble, Published by Practical Action on 02/02/02
Let us know which of the options below best describes you and we'll direct you to the most relevant content.
Practical Action uses technology to challenge poverty, working with poor women and men around the world.
Explore our work by Country
Explore our work by Technology
+44 (0)1926 634400 firstname.lastname@example.org
© Practical Action