Addressing climate change
Climate change is more visible in the Andean region due to increased melting of glaciers, most extreme climate variability, recurrence of El Niño and La Niña, land degradation and the effects and potential in the Amazon. According to the Ministry of Agriculture, the glacial area of the Andes in Peru has dropped by 22% between 1970 and 1997, and the area under glaciers up to 80%, resulting in 12% reductions in the availability of fresh water in the coastal zone where 60% of the population lives.
Progressive changes of climate generate increased pests and declining productivity, mainly affecting Andean and Amazonian communities.In addition, climate variability determines the occurrence of extreme weather phenomena such as drought, frost, floods, mudslides and landslides events represent 71% of total destructive phenomena occurred in the region. The populations most affected are extremely poor, devoted to livestock and subsistence agriculture.
In Peru, in 2010, about 500 people were affected by frost, according to reports from the Ministry of Health, most of whome were children under 5 and adults over 60 years.
In Peru the areas of greatest impact of droughts are located in the southern Andean region of the country, mainly in the departments of Huancavelica, Apurimac, Puno, Arequipa, Moquegua, Tacna and Cuzco, affecting a population of 3,416,383 inhabitants and 12 960 towns (Census 2007, INEI). In the case of Bolivia, the departments of Potosí, Oruro, La Paz-South, Chuquisaca, Cochabamba and Tarija were most affected by drought, while the floods hit Santa Cruz, Beni, Pando, and north of La Paz. Around 420,000 people were affected by floods in the period 1997-2007. The number of people affected in 2006-2007 is really great: 560 000 and 618 000 during the years 2007-2008, equivalent to 6% of the country's population.
The creation and implementation of programs for Mitigation and Adaptation to Climate Change has enabled countries in the region a better understanding of the problem. While some initiatives have been developed to assess the impact of climate change and promote adaptation strategies, there is still a general lack of future scenarios and potential adaptation measures at local levels. The analysis and evaluation of the impact of climate change are not integral to the extent that simply assess local or sectoral impacts without enough interrelate. The so-called adaptation strategies have also been articulated to large investment projects, to watershed management strategies and policies for poverty reduction.
Practical Action (Soluciones Prácticas) has implemented pilot adaptation in seven regions of Peru, which have been validated methodologies, management tools and technologies according to each situation, making it possible to establish strategies to incorporate climate change adaptation in the local and subnational management levels through the following measures:
- Development of diagnostics and future scenarios of climate change in order to inform producers and guide policies, programs and projects.
- Creating and strengthening information systems and early warning in order to address the current effects of climate change and the spread of proposals and appropriate technologies.
- Generation of platforms for governance of natural resources in watersheds through municipal associations.
- Incorporation of adaptation strategies in participatory planning and budgeting.
- Institutionalization and incorporation of mechanisms of citizen participation and consultation to include more communities and vulnerable individuals.
- Inclusion of the issue of climate change in formal and informal decentralized education.
Reducing vulnerability to recurrent climatic disasters in Andean areas
Purpose: The families and communities of the Andean zones and zones of coca leaf producers have reduced their vulnerability to recurrent climatic disasters that damage their crops
Location: Apurimac, Huancavelica, Ayacucho and Loreto (Peru)
Beneficiaries: Families and communities and Andean coca-producing areas of 64 districts selected from within regions of Apurimac, Huancavelica, Ayacucho and Loreto
Qemikuspa: Adaptation measures to climate change for protecting and improving the livelihoods of alpaca-raising indigenous communities in the high Andes
Purpose: To contribute to the protection of livelihoods of indigenous Andean communities in Caylloma and dependent Espinar raising alpacas, through dissemination and expansion of validated adaptive mechanisms
Location: Cusco and Arequipa (Peru)
Beneficiaries: 10 districts of the Upper Apurimac River in the area of the districts of Caylloma, Coporaque and Suykutambo
Partners: Association Screening
Technologies for adaptation and mitigation to climate change
Purpose: To protect the livelihoods of the rural poor by improving their capacity to adapt to climate variability and change. It covered three main areas: (1) agroprocessing technologies, (2) information, (3) conflict management, aiming to generate knowledge and technologies and improve existing adaptation to the climate change process.
Location: Piura, Cajamarca, Lambayeque, San Martin, Ancash, Cuzco, Apurimac (Peru)
Beneficiaries: 6,310 people.
Financial: European Commission
Livelihood adaptation to climate variability and change in Piura, Peru
Purpose: To steadily improve the living conditions of rural poor against the local effects of climate change
Location: Piura (Peru)
Partners: European Commission, district populations and Chulucanas Frías, agroecological farmers committees, commissions irrigators and rural patrols
Monitoring and evaluation of projects related to climate change
Purpose: To monitor and evaluate the progress and achievements of three projects in the area of climate change funded by the UNDP Small Grants Programme
Location: Huancayo and Lima
Financial: SGP UNDP
Partner: ESEA, Adener ASPEC
Knowledge for adaptation to climate variability in rural schools in Cajamarca
Purpose: To validate the ability of rural schools in the province of Cajamarca to develop appropriate knowledge for adaptation to climate variability, thus contributing to reducing their impacts on livelihoods
Location: Cajamarca (Peru)
Partners: Oxfam America, farmers, community education
Disaster risk patterns associated with the local effects of global climate change in the Piura region: social processes, vulnerability and adaptation
Purpose: To systematize and expand knowledge on the linkages between disaster risk patterns and global climate change in the Piura region, and to promote their inclusion in decision-making and policy formulation
Location: Piura (Peru)
Partner: Program for Strengthening National Capacity to manage the impact of climate change and air pollution (PROCLIM) of the National Environment Council (CONAM)