Techniicall Techn ca Innovatiion Briief Innovat on Br ef
No. 11, March 2011
Cereal Cyst Nematodes: An unnoticed threat to global cereal production A. Dababat, S. Pariyar, J. Nicol, E. Duveiller
Global distribution and crop loss Nematodes are among the earliest recognized parasites of wheat that occur worldwide in nearly all environments. A loss of 10% of world crop production has been estimated as a result of plant nematode damage (Whitehead 1998). The cereal cyst nematodes (CCNs) are the most important group of plant parasitic nematodes attacking temperate cereals, including wheat and barley (Sikora 1988). CCNs are a group of several closely related species which have been documented as causing economic yield loss in rainfed wheat production systems in several parts of the world including North Africa, West Asia, China, India, Australia, the United States of America and countries in Europe (Nicol and Rivoal 2008). The species most reported are Heterodera avenae, H. filipjevi and H. latipons (Rivoal and Cook 1993) and each species consists of different pathotypes. At least 12 pathotypes have been described for H. avenae. Their worldwide distribution, predominance in areas where cereal is grown, and their devastating yield loss rank them as major pests affecting the world’s food supply. Their effects on plant growth and yield are commonly underestimated by farmers, agronomists, and pest management advisors because of difficulties in detection (Bridge et al. 2002).
Winter wheat affected by H. avenae combined with lower soil fertility on a hilltop near Palouse, Washington, USA. – R. Smiley
CGIAR Systemwide Program on Integrated Pest Management (SP-IPM) is a global partnership that draws together the diverse IPM research, knowledge and expertise of the international agricultural research centers and their partners to build synergies in research outcomes and impacts, and to respond more effectively to the needs of farmers in developing countries.
SP-IPM Technical Innovation Briefs present, in short, IPM research findings and innovations for the management of pests, diseases, and weeds in agricultural production.
Biology and damage symptoms CCNs are sedentary and monocyclic nematodes. The life cycle consits of the egg, four juvenile stages and the adult stage. CCNs are characterized by the development of white females swelling to form resistant cysts which may remain dormant in the soil for several years. The larvae of the nematodes emerge from eggs as second stage juveniles, and migrates into the soil where they penetrate root tips. The symptoms of nematode attack are more visible in seedlings than in the older plants. The symptoms appear early in the season as pale green patches, with the lower leaves of the plant becoming yellow, and the plants generally have few tillers. Infected plants grow poorly and in uneven patches. Symptoms can easily be confused with those from other problems such as nitrogen deficiency and poor soil. Infected root systems show increased root production, and have a `bushy-knotted´ appearance. This highly-branched root system is a characteristic enabling CCNs to be diagnosed in wheat and barley. As the life cycle of CCNs progresses, several white females in the form of cysts are usually visible at each knot.
Irrigated winter wheat infested with Heterodera avenae with tolerant (left) and intolerant (right) cultivars growing in adjacent farmer’s fields in Xuchang, Henan, China. – I. Riley
This and other IPM Briefs are available from www.spipm.cgiar.org
A) White female of Heterodera filipjevi on wheat root system. – H. Saglam. B) “Knotting” of wheat roots. C) Stunted wheat plant with knotted roots heavily infested with Heterodera avenae (right) compared with uninfested plant (left). – H. Li
Management Many examples around the world have shown that the population of CCNs can be reduced effectively through an integrated approach. Cultural practices Cultural practices are the most efficient methods of reducing CCNs. Crop rotation with non-cereals or grass-free rotation is very successful in reducing the population below the damaging threshold level. Organic amendments, such as manure, organic matter, and compost may also compensate for the reducing effect of CCNs on wheat yield. Under fallow, non-host, or resistant cultivars, populations of H. avenae can decline by 70-80% annually through spontaneous hatching which results in the death of juveniles (Singh et al. 2009). Chemical control In the past, low rates of nematicides applied to both soil and seeds have provided effective and economical control of CCNs, in Australia, India, and Israel (Rivoal and Nicol 2009). The use of chemicals becomes economic when other methods of control are too costly, difficult to apply, or when a method such as rotation is inadequate (Hague and Gowen 1987). Today however, no chemical is considered adequate because of costs, environmental hazards, and high health risks for farmers.
About the authors
Biological control It has been shown that fungal pathogens of nematodes such as Catenaria auxiliaries, Pochonia chlamydosporia and Nematophthora gynophila could infect and kill the eggs and females of CCNs (Mitchinson et al. 2009, Kerry et al. 1977). However, these fungi have not yet been exploited as biological control agents at a commercial scale. Host plant resistance Using resistant crop cultivars is considered the most effective and economical method for managing nematodes in both high and low value cropping systems. The effectivness of resistance to CCN depends on the effectiveness and durability of the sources of resistance and on ther correct identification of the nematode species and/or pathotype/s (Nicol and Rivoal 2008). CIMMYT-Turkey, in collaboration with partners in Turkey, are screening up to 3000 germplasm against Hetetodera filipjevi and H. avenae under controlled conditions. Then, the best resistant germplasm will be tested in the open field under high and low nematode pressure to evaluate their tolerance as well. In Turkey, 2 resistant varieties (Sonnmez and Katea) are grown in areas where H. filipjevi is predominant. The next step it to identify of molecular markers for resistance to CCNs through association mapping. This approach will require to assemble a set of germplasm (about 300 entries) with variable levels of resistance to CCN. Further reading
Amer Dababat is a plant pathologist working with the CIMMYT Program on Soil Borne Pathogens in Wheat in Turkey. Shree Pariyar is currently studying for a PhD in molecular phytomedicine at the University of Bonn, Germany. Julie Nicol is a plant pathologist with CIMMYT and was based in Turkey until December 2010. Etienne Duveiller is a pathologist and currently Associate Director of CIMMYT’s Global Wheat Program. email: email@example.com
This Technical Innovation Brief is published by: SP-IPM Secretariat SP-IPM@cgiar.org www.spipm.cgiar.org
Bridge, J., Cooke, R., and Starr, J. (2002). Plant Resistance to parasitic nematodes. CAB International, Wallington Oxon, United Kingdom. Hague N.G.M and Gowen, S.R. (1987). Chemical Control of nematodes. In R.H. Brown and B.R. Kerry (eds) Principles and practice of nematode control in crops. pp.131-178. Academic Press. Sydney, Australia. Kerry, B.R. and Crump, D.H. (1977). Observations on fungal parasites of female and eggs of the cereal cyst nematode Heterodera avenae, and other cyst nematodes. Nematologica. 23:193-201. Mitchinson, S., Gowen, S.R., and Kerry, B.R. (2009). Induced biodiversity in cereal cyst nematode infestation is not a threat to intensive cereal production in southern Britain. In: I.T. Riley, J.M. Nicol and A.A. Dababat (eds) Cereal cyst nematodes: status, research and outlook. pp. 215-220. CIMMYT: Ankara, Turkey. Nicol, J. M. (2002). Important nematode pests. In B.C. Curtis, S. Rajaram, H. Macpherson (eds) Bread Wheat. pp. 345366. Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy. Nicol, J.M. and Rivoal, R. (2008). Global knowledge and its application for the integrated control and management of nematodes on wheat. Chapter in: A. Ciancio and K.G. Mukerji, (eds) Integrated Management and Biocontrol of Vegetable and Grain Crops Nematodes. Springer, NL, 243-287. Rivoal, R. and Cook, R. (1993). Nematode pests of cereals. In K.Evans, D.L Trudgill, and J.M. Webster (eds) Plant Parasitic Nematodes in Temperate Agriculture. pp. 259–303. CAB International, UK. Rivoal, R. and Nicol, J.M. (2009). Past research on the cereal cyst nematode complex and future needs. In I.T. Riley, J.M. Nicol, and A.A. Dababat (eds) Cereal cyst nematodes: status, research and outlook. pp. 149-153. CIMMYT: Ankara, Turkey. Sikora, R. A. (1988). Plant parasitic nematodes of wheat and barley in temperate and temperate semiarid regions - a comparative analysis. In M.G. Saxena, R.A. Sikora, J.P. Srivastava (eds) Nematodes parasites to cereals and legumes in temperature semi-arid regions pp. 46-48. ICARDA: Aleppo, Syria. Singh, A.K., Sharma, A.K., and Shoran, J. (2009). Heterodera avenae and its management on wheat in India. In I.T. Riley, J.M. Nicol and A.A. Dadabat (eds) Cereal cyst nematodes: status, research and outlook.. pp 149-153. CIMMYT: Ankara, Turkey. Whitehead, A.G. (1998). Plant Nematode Control. CAB International, New York. NY.
SP-IPM Steering Committee Members: Sikora, R (Program Chair); Nwilene, F (AfricaRice); Ramasamy, S (AVRDC); Staver, C (Bioversity); Buruchara, R (CIAT); Nicol, J (CIMMYT); Kroschel, J (CIP); Yahyaoui, A (ICARDA); Ekesi, S (icipe); Sharma, H (ICRISAT); Narrod, C (IFPRI); Bandyopadhyay, R (IITA); Heong, KL (IRRI); Bramel, P (DDG –R4D convening center, IITA); Hoeschle-Zeledon, I (Program Coordinator, IITA)
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