Three female Muscovy ducks were splashing in greenish water kept in a small concrete tub when we reached Bhumisara Poudel’s house. The drake was tethered to a post near the coop and the area was covered with a mosquito net. Nearby, a manure yard measuring 6 ft x 4 ft made from cement blocks was also covered with a mosquito net.
I wondered why they had mosquito nets everywhere around the manure yard.
“The net stops rats and moles from eating earthworms,” said Baburam Poudel, Bhumisara’s husband. “These are not ordinary earthworms, each one costs NRs 3. We bought half a kilo of earthworms for NRs 1,500 (Around 15 USD) and these creatures have been helping us produce vermicompost enough for our seven kattha (1 kattha = 338 sq. m) farm.”
Demand-driven training to farmers
Jyoti Ale Magar, a social mobiliser at the Sauraha Community Library and Resource Centre (CLRC) told us how Bhumisara started raising the earthworms for vermicompost. “We trained 20 farmers from this area on vermicomposting,” she said. “We organise the trainings as per the demand from the community.”
With the support from Practical Answers Knowledge Services Programme, 22 CLRCs in 15 districts of Nepal have been organising trainings for farmers, interaction with agriculture experts and practical sessions at regular intervals.
Linking farmers to government and non-government organisations
During one of the interaction sessions, the CLRC connected Bhumisara with the Agriculture Service Centre in the area. The service centre provided a grant of NRs 25,000 to Bhumisara to construct a shed and a manure yard, and buy earthworms for vermicomposting.
As we were talking about the benefits of organic fertiliser, Baburam dug out a handful of vermicompost from the pit. Two small earthworms wriggled out of the dark brown compost. Putting them back to the pit, Baburam showed us how to determine whether the fertiliser was ready to use.
“The ready-to-use compost is like a handful of dry CTC tea (black tea made by crush, tear, curl method),” he said. “It’s easy to carry and administer to the soil – not like the wet livestock manure.”
All they needed to do was to add livestock manure, dried leaves to the pit, keep it cool by sprinkling water at regular intervals. The earthworms would do the rest of the work.
Improving food security and livelihood
Learning how to prepare and handle vermicompost, we went to the adjacent farm to see how the vegetables were faring. The couple had recently harvested a crop of potatoes and the newly planted bitter gourd saplings were climbing up the stakes, with their tendrils coiling around them.
“We harvested 10 quintals of potatoes in this three kattha plot,” said Baburam beaming with joy. “Earlier the plot yielded not more than 5-6 quintals. We sold some and have stored a quintal of potatoes in a cold store.”
The manure pit produced vermicompost enough for the potato cultivation. In addition, they had applied the compost to the bitter gourd saplings and the flowers at the front of their house.
Spreading the knowledge
Close to the vegetable farm, I could see an outlet protruding from base of the manure pit and a reddish brown liquid dripping from the pipe. The water sprayed on the manure yard converts into a nutrient after getting in contact with the manure and earthworms. And according to Bhumisara and Baburam, it is more nutritious than the compost and can be collected in a bottle.
Bhumisara quipped, “Earlier the fertiliser used to be carried in truckloads, then in sacks and now in bottles.”
Appreciating his wife’s knowledge, Baburam said, “She learnt all this at the CLRC and I learnt from her.”
“Many people come to see how we are raising the earthworms and producing vermicompost,” added Bhumisara. “We are happy to teach them all the tricks of the trade.”
Now, they no more need to carry truckloads of wet livestock manure. It used to be a back-breaking chore before cultivation and lasted for 5-6 days at a stretch. The vermicompost can be stored and stacked in sacks and the liquid nutrient adds to the productivity of the crops.
Practical answers to the farmers’ queries
As we were having coffee after the snapshot of the manure yard and vegetable farm, Baburam let go the tethered drake. It started chasing the other three ducks and the place became lively with the ducks’ quacks.
The social mobilisers at the CLRCs respond to the queries of the farmers. They provide the related knowledge materials and invite experts to interact with the farmers. This gives the farmers a better idea on managing their land, cultivating crops and starting alternative income generating activities.
“I’m planning to dig a pond by the side of the coop,” told Baburam. “So that these ducks can swim and we can get fish to eat.”
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Muscovy ducks are in high demand in the touristic hub Sauraha. Baburam Poudel from Bachhauli said, “A male duck fetches Nepali rupees 1500 and once it is cooked, the restaurants charge 3500 rupees for the same duck.” And it’s all benefits to the farmers here. Once reared by Tharus only in this area, now-a-days everybody rears these ducks, originally from Mexico just like the hot chillies! —— #muscovy #duck #picoftheday #photoftheday #sauraha #Chitwan #Nepal #instalike #instapic #travelgram #instatravel #travelblog #tharu #terai
Margaret Kariuku is a Kenyan woman who has not had the easiest path to success. As a mother of four, she has struggled to find a stable income to provide for herself and her children.
“Three times, I have had to start again. Three times, I have had to rebuild my livelihood. It all begun in 2005, when I stopped working as a secretary in Nakuru town. I thought that I would get my life sorted, but as fate would have it, this would not be.”
After she finished working as a secretary, she moved to her father’s farm, hoping to re-establish herself as a farmer. At first, her maize crops yielded well. However, as the days passed, her crops went down. By the third year, there was nothing left to harvest, and Margaret needed to decide what to do next.
“I picked up the pieces and decided to set up a milk collection centre. I bought milk from the farmers and sold it to the residents. I also decided to buy a motorcycle. When it was not used to collect milk, it would be a taxi. That way, I had two income streams.”
In the beginning, Margaret’s new business did well. Two income streams guaranteed a stable income. Sadly, after couple months, she realised that her employees were embezzling money from her. She needed to close the business. “I almost got disoriented when I lost my second business. But I collected myself again and set up once more.”
This time, she decided to establish a business on her own. She opened a grocery store which provided just enough income to keep her going. One day, she overheard her neighbour talking about a new source of energy called briquetting. This sparked her interest. She participated in a conference, organised by Practical Action Eastern Africa and SCODE (Sustainable Community Development Services), where she saw a demo of the production process. After the conference, her neighbour suggested a visit to the briquetting production site in the neighbourhood.
Although reluctant at first, she accompanied her neighbour to the site – pretending to be an entrepreneur. At the site, she quickly learned, that she could earn better income as a briquetting entrepreneur than owner of a grocery store. Meanwhile, the costs and availability of the raw materials made it easy to enter the market. She went back home feeling energised and thoughtful.
“My hope was that even if my grocery store was not performing well, I had briquettes. I knew that if I’d start producing them, I would be able to make a better income. So I started to produce them manually. I thought to myself, this is really hard! However, Practical Action and SCODE helped me. They rented me a machine to aide production. I had found my salvation.”
Margaret launched her briquettes business in 2015 and has increased her sales ever since. She has also participated in Practical Action’s training programmes, aimed to enhance women’s energy enterprise opportunities in Kenya. In 2017, she won the Energia Women Entrepreneurship Award – A prize that recognizes individuals that have done outstanding work in the sector.
In the future, Margaret wants to further expand her business and create jobs in the community. “Many young people are jobless, and many women are frustrated because they have no way of getting income. So I can use the prize money to give them a chance, to teach them, and to give them skills so that they can benefit the way I have.”
Did you enjoy this story? If yes, go to our Mother’s Day site and meet other inspiring women just like Margaret!
Want to help women like Margaret this Mother’s Day? Our Practical Presents Charity Gift shop offers some amazing Mother’s Day gifts that are designed to transform lives. More information here.6 Comments » | Add your comment
Mother’s Day is one of my favourite days of the year. Not because of all the festivities or pastries (which I don’t mind!), but because it reminds me of all the amazing women I have met, but I haven’t had a chance to tell you about yet.
Meet Kamala Joshi, a Nepalese single-mother who, like many other women in rural communities, got married in her early twenties. She had a baby soon after wedlock, sadly, her husband left her shortly after the baby was born. Kamala struggled to provide for herself and her child, and had to move out of her home. She found a temporary refuge from a women’s shelter (‘maiti’) but knew that she could not stay there for long. A fear to end up homeless was strong.
In Nepal, especially in rural areas, women’s fate is still linked to that of their husbands. A broken marriage leaves a social stigma that most of the women will have to carry for the rest of their lives – no matter what the reasons led to the separation. Women with unlucky marriages, often face discrimination and social exclusion without much hope for the future.
Kamala, however, refused to accept this and wanted to fight for a better life for herself and her daughter. She started working in agriculture and with some time, determination and a bit of luck, she was selected to participate in a training programme in agriculture with Practical Action’s partner, District Agriculture Development Office (DADO). From this, she gained the right tools and knowledge to establish herself as a self-sufficient small-scale farmer.
In 2014, couple years after Kamala had started as a small-scale farmer, she had another training opportunity through Practical Action’s Promotion of Sustainable Agriculture for Nutrition and Food Security project. This time, she learnt skills and knowledge to support other local farmers. Since then, she has demonstrated and facilitated workshops in her community to share her knowledge of small scale farming for the benefit of all.
Kamala Joshi managed to break the cycle. Since she started to work in agriculture, she has no longer struggled to provide for her family and even managed to send her daughter to a boarding school. She is now one of the most respected women in the community, despite the social stigma of her marital status. Her story is an inspiring reminder that right knowledge, opportunities and determination have the power to break the social dynamics that cause discrimination against women.
Did you enjoy this story? If yes, go to our Mother’s Day site and meet other inspiring women just like Kamala!
Want to help women like Kamala this Mother’s Day? Our Practical Presents Charity Gift shop offers some amazing Mother’s Day gifts that are designed to transform lives. More information here.No Comments » | Add your comment
Technology should save cash. Households reduced their monthly expenditure on energy freeing resources for other needs.
Technology should be affordable: Price matters. As anticipated, the technology we offer is highly connected to their price. If it is affordable, adaptation will be rapid. Price can range from free to unaffordable based on individual household’s income status. Only the technologies that are within the affordable finance will see the light of the day, that too with efforts by development agents.
Poor the households, more they spend on technology (% of income). Based on local situation, knowledge of level of investment that can be realistically expected from different income groups is crucial?
Everyone yearn for new technology. It provides social status and also peer pressure to own new technology (conforming behavior). Some of the values users derive are tangible and others are not. Household decision making has factors other than eco
Farida Bascha joined Practical Action as Eastern Africa Regional Director in January 2017 and is a strong advocate for Gender equity and women’s rights. We caught up with her prior to the International Women’s Day to learn more about her and her thoughts about women and development.
Congratulations and welcome to Practical Action! Can you tell us little bit about your background?
Thank you, I’m really excited about this opportunity! My mother once joked that my faith and beliefs are human rights – I don’t think she was wrong as that perfectly sums up my background! With my first degree in law and human rights, my career has been embedded in the principles of dignity, equality and accessibility of human rights. That continues to be my drive and also led me to my position today.
What inspired you to join Practical Action?
It is a great time to be part of Practical Action as the organization is embarking on a new Strategy. Being part of this change, and leading the change in East Africa, inspired me to join the organization. Practical Action’s ‘small is beautiful’ approach means that we get to work with those communities who are often left behind. This is an approach I want to be part of. The new Strategy also puts women and climate change at the centre of our work which is something that I am excited to drive within the region.
What are your thoughts on current state of women’s rights?
At the global level, the influence of women has become more and more visible. Women’s rights are being discussed again as human rights and this has escalated the need to understand the marginalisation of women in society and decisions that affect them. Women are more educated and work more, however, the social dynamics haven’t changed in many societies. Could this be the time to address the structural causes of discrimination against women, and social gender norms and perceptions that act as barriers to an equitable society?
Why women and girls should be placed at the heart of the development agenda?
With the adoption of the SDGs, the need to place women squarely within the development agenda has never been stronger. The targets under the SDGs look at enhancing the opportunity towards equal access to work and reducing the different dimensions of discrimination. To understand these needs and realize sustainable solutions, we need to involve women in all these discussions. Practical Action’s new Strategy puts the needs of women at the centre of our work which is in line with the SDGs, and provides an exciting opportunity to address the barriers to gender parity.
What are your thoughts on women in leadership positions?
We need more women in leadership positions. Leadership to me means being competent and confident to make and uphold decisions. It is extremely important to have women in these decision making positions. That might be the biggest challenge yet but very possible. Women in decision making positions sets the pace for change for millions of women who strive for the same. No one better than a woman herself to understand the change that is needed and be in a position to make this change.
What advice would you give to aspiring women leaders?
Stay driven and keep your dreams and ambitions alive. It might not be an easy road, but every moment wasted looking back stops us from moving forward. Women are the most untapped resource and talent in society. If we can inspire more women leaders, we can achieve an equitable society.
Did you enjoy this story? If yes, go to our Mother’s Day site and meet other inspiring women like Farida!
Want to help empowering women this Mother’s Day? Our Practical Presents Charity Gift shop offers some amazing Mother’s Day gifts that are designed to transform lives. More information here.
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Improving energy access has been in the agenda for quite some time in the Agenda of development partners – State, donors and civil society. After the UN Secretary General called of Sustainable Energy Access for All (SEforAll in 2012), the agenda got hyped in almost all development partners menu. With its integration in Sustainable Development Goal, it has firmly established as one of development agenda worldwide. Awareness, affordability and availability are described here as three pillars of energy access that is sustainable and smart.
1. Awareness – Knowledge about and knowledge how to use, cognizance
Knowledge on ways and means how people understand their energy need and their access to it is a matter of their level of knowledge. A person’s ability to live a decent living in terms of health, safety, convenience and comfort and exploit potential to earn a decent living or exploit economic opportunities depends on knowledge and skill set owned in addition to assets (resources) at ones disposal. Since energy and device to use energy can impact heavily on one’s productivity, capacity to achieve her/his earning for living, importance of knowledge and awareness of existing options of energy access is immense. Another dimension of awareness in this regard is how the state or society supports or deters her/his access, which is equally important (politically) to ensure equitable energy access.
Therefore, awareness–knowledge at all level including policy makers, users and suppliers is essential for sustainable access to ensure optimum resource utilization in terms of attaining high impact at household national and global level. Competency to select and use the best technology/resource option means being able to acquire and operate based on unabated availability of technical and market information. The ultimate result of knowledge and awareness can be perceived to be willingness to invest at all level by users, state and global actors.
2. Affordability – Be able to buy, able to purchase or able to secure finance
Access to energy resource and device that are better efficient comes at a price. This price needs to be analysed in terms of capital investment and day to day operating costs. The better options are often associated with higher up-front capital requirement. They end of in saving in operating costs mainly fuel costs later. This requires summing-up up-front cost and operating cost to derive real cost of service. Life-cycle costing technology using appropriate discount rate can provide meaningful insights to help in making energy access option selection process. This analysis can be used by consumers, national policy makers and global actors, alike. However, consumers may select discount rate purely based on his financial costs, usually based on current projected market interest rate at which he will be able to source his funding requirements. National policy makers will need a different set of discount rates that takes into account parameters such as supply risks, political and social in addition to financial parameter alone. Further, global actors would add additional parameters like global environmental concern and other matters like world peace etc. while choosing a discount rate to make their decision.
Differentiating consumptive and productive use of energy from affordability aspect is also important. Often higher per unit cost can be affordable for productive use as costs are passed-on to final product costs. Amalgamation of productive use of energy with access for basic need will in effect provide opportunity to bring-down cost of basic energy access through cross-subsidy from productive use. Similarly, grants of various shape and size will impact the immediate affordability. Capital cost, operating cost grants are most common ones.
Financial analysis and life cycle cost of access is only a part of story; another side of coin from affordability point of view is access to finance. What is important to understand and realize is that affordability is not about being able to pay but it is institutional back up including mechanism for grant and loan that will make end-users able to afford. The socio-politico-economic perception and commitments will greatly impact people’s affordability.
3. Availability – Resources and devices are physically available in different size and quality to serve different energy needs. Resource availability is a factor that is governed by nature in tandem with human ingenuity in terms of harvesting technology and processes. However, availability of devices to enable use of resources is entirely made of parameters made by the society. Therefore, as it sounds availability of natural resources and devices for energy access may not be as simple as it sounds. Availability is matter of fact driven by geopolitical realities. Economic policies like pricing and tax and subsidies will determine immediate availability and long-term sustainability. Politically, it may sound attractive to subsidise primal energy access for poor, particularly in poor countries, however financing such a subsidy has always been a challenge. Difficulties in targeting such subsidies, transaction cost and financing the policy are some of the argument that will tend policy makers to look for alternatives. Energy access in the urban and rural areas varies widely in terms of access be it in quantity or in quality. Rural areas are mostly at the short-change side. Enhancing availability in the rural areas, therefore, warrants more importance for multiple reasons including reducing pressure on urban infrastructure and keeping rural economy rolling in addition to maintain geopolitical balance. Optimising resource utilisation, natural as well as financial, will hold the key to a balance and sustainable energy access. Use of various innovative financing instruments and market regulation should be the areas to look for to improve availability. A systemic analysis that comprises market (supply chain) enabling factors like governance and regulations and necessary services to avail energy such as after sales service, finance, insurance, road-access, human resource capacity to acquire and operate will be a way to start analysis and planning for availability.
On the whole, to achieve sustainable energy access, the mechanism and procedures of energy access need to be made “smart”. Use of existing and new technologies with maximum involvement of citizens politically and financially with innovative governance and administration to improve cost-effectiveness are some of the key components of “smart” energy access.
Vishwa Bhushan Amatya
Head of Programme, Energy
Practical Action South Asia Regional Office
Wadi el Ku catchment management project is an EU funded programme jointly implemented by Practical Action, UNEP and the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, and Irrigation in North Darfur.
Wadi el Ku is situated near El Fasher town and covers an area of 50km with 34 villages. There are a number of internally displaced people and the area suffers from conflict, poor government resources and poor water use which lead to environmental degradation and negative effects on people’s livelihoods.
The project supports
- Development of inclusive Natural Resource Management (NRM) with a focus on water
- Promotion of better livelihood practices and techniques
- Building institutional capacities
The project organised a learning visit to East Sudan for North Darfur extension officials and community leaders on Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM), agriculture, livestock and forestry innovation. This formed part of the project’s capacity building programme for government institutions.
Objectives of capacity building for this project are:
- To improve the state government’s capacity to deliver services to local communities through enhancing the knowledge and skills of government staff
- To coordinate natural resource management institutions for joint policy decisions at different levels of government and local community through relationship building.
Objectives of the visit:
To demonstrate relevant technological innovations, practices and approaches in the fields of agriculture, livestock, forestry and IWRM in Sudan to government extension officials and community leaders that would be applicable and useful to North Darfur and to the Wadi El Ku catchment in particular.
Specifically the in-country learning visit is aimed at the following objectives:
- To provide exposure to extension officials and community leaders from North Darfur to successful IWRM and NRM practices in other parts of Sudan
- Learn about successful agricultural, livestock and forestry technology adoption and practices in Sudan
- To bring a rich learning experience on NRM and IWRM practices, an agricultural/livestock/forestry techniques to North Darfur
On August Ms. Mariam Ibrahim from UNEP, Sudan visited the Eastern States on a scoping mission to prepare for the visit. In October 2016 team from North Darfur visited the Ministries of Livestock, Agriculture and Forestry. The met with His Excellency the Minister of Livestock and made field visits to Gedarif Center for Improved Animal Production Techniques, Shwak Quarantine Station and the Regional Veterinary Laboratory.
Meeting our brothers from west Sudan was a once in a life time opportunity that give the whole group the chance to interact on both a professional and humanitarian level.
The visit provided a valuable opportunity to observe and learn about NRM practices from other parts of Sudan and allowed participants to share their own experiences from Wadi El Ku, making it truly a two-way learning exchange.
The two parties presented their activities at a final work shop. This was a great opportunity for the Gedarif State participants to learn about the Wadi el Ku project.No Comments » | Add your comment
Globally, 1.3 billion people have no access to energy and it’s this lack of access that is keeping people living in poverty. Energy has the power to transform lives, it enables clinics to offer 24 hour care, for school children to study at night and it enables farmers to irrigate their land with reliable water pumps.
Practical Action has been working with people across Malawi and Zimbabwe to bring clean and sustainable solar energy to their communities. This project is called Sustainable Energy for Rural Communities and I recently travelled to Zimbabwe to see how energy is changing lives.
I met Miss Mumpande, who works at the Mashaba Primary School in the Gwanda District. She has taught at the school for eight years and teaches 12-13 year olds. The school now has access to solar power, which means they have electricity for lighting.
Sadly, it hasn’t always been this way. For years, the school had no access to electricity and they struggled to attract teachers because of it. Teachers would also have to prepare lessons by candle light and the students couldn’t stay late to study because the school was in darkness.
“Before solar, it was difficult, I wouldn’t prepare the school work well. I had to light candles and prepare. It took two hours, now it only takes one. My eyes would hurt. I wouldn’t prepare my work well, sometimes I made mistakes and had to buy candles myself.”
Having no electricity also affected her student’s education, she explained how they couldn’t study outside of school, but now they are able to stay late and study in the light. Their grades have improved and they’re now excited to come to class. The school has even started offering night classes for older members of the community.
Having electricity has had a huge impact on Miss Mumpande, her students and the rest of the school. She said, “Some teachers left because of the problems but now many want to come here because of the electricity.”
Mashaba Primary school is proof that electricity really can change lives.
To find out more about the project, click here.No Comments » | Add your comment
Co authored with Gurudas Biswas, Monitoring & Documentation Officer, V2R+ project, Bangladesh
The extreme poverty status of Bangladesh (those with a per capita daily income of less than US$1.25) is reducing significantly in rural areas, but rural poverty is still higher than urban poverty in Bangladesh.
Among the rural extreme poor, people with disabilities are the most marginalized. They are often excluded both from their communities and from development initiatives. Women and children are most vulnerable. They are the poorest of the poor.
WHO and World Bank estimates that about 10% of the population in developing have a disability. However, there is lack of nationally representative study or survey on disability in Bangladesh. Other available studies like the Population Census 2011 and Household Income and Expenditure Survey 2011 show that the prevalence of persons with disability ranging from 0.90% to 1.41%.
Disability and disaster
Disasters like cyclones, tornadoes, thunderstorms and injuries from road accidents, and workplace accidents increase the number of disabilities. A study of Centre for Injury Prevention and Research, conducted in Bangladesh in the aftermath of super cyclone SIDR in 2007, revealed that most deaths occurred from drowning and multiple injuries. Among the nonfatal cases there was around 10% who were at risks of permanent disability if there were not treated properly.
Including disabled people in flood resilience initiative
The mighty river Jamuna flows through Sirajganj. It has a population of 3,215,873, (51.14% male: 48.86% female. Most of the areas of Sirajganj are eroded by the Jamuna (river) and newly developed areas on the river are known as Char. The people of Char areas face discrimination in all sorts of areas of modern society. Moreover, they are often attacked by natural disasters like flood, windstorm, thunderstorm, drought and heavy rain. Floods, tornadoes and thunderstorms cause both fatal and nonfatal injuries. Besides, this district bridges the northern and southern parts of Bangladesh with rivers and roadways. Therefore people are at high risks of road traffic injuries too. Besides, flood and river bank erosion are recurrent phenomenon adversely affecting the socio-economic conditions of the people, most of whom are farmers.
The Vulnerability to Resilience (V2R) project of Practical Action Bangladesh is working to build the resilience of flood vulnerable people of Sirajganj and Bogra District. The project has emphasized the inclusion of disabled people to improve their livelihoods. From the design stage of the project people with disability have been targeted. A short survey in the communities found that 10.34% of households are holding with disability including physical disability such a lameness, or speech, sight or hearing loss.
It was also revealed that people with disability were less happy. A disabled person is seen as curse on the family and treated as a family burden and often neglected. If the disabled person is the household head or earning member then the whole family goes is vulnerable.
In the monsoon the project organised preparedness and awareness raising events including disabled people. Community Based Organizations (CBO)were trained to do emergency and response work with disability. Dduring search and rescue work the Community Based Organizations (CBO) move them first. The Local Resilience Agents (LRAs) also provided close and comprehensive assistance on preparedness, search and rescue work. In resilience building initiatives uplifting the incomes of poor people is important. So when an income generating initiative is underway, we give priority to families with members with disability as they are most vulnerable to any disaster.
Md. Nur Hossain(45), Ranipura Village of Belkuchi Upazila is paralyzed and has no land. The five members of his family were dependent on his wife’s (Morshida Khatun) income. She used to work part time in a weaving factory as daily labourer, selling clothes from house to house. Her income was not enough to cover household consumption so that they had to depend on gifts from relatives.
In 2014 when the V2R+ project began in Ranipura Village, as a flood vulnerable community Murshida Khatun’s household was included as project beneficiaries. In 2016, Murshida Khatun got 8000 Tk (£80) with one-day of training on business management from the project. She provided her husband with a tiny stall of of dry food and fast food items. Her husband can easily handle those as he does not need to use any fire or lift heavy weighst. He is now planning to buy a digital weight measuring scale that is easy to use for people unable to carry heavy weights. Having an income from both husband and wife is helping them to find their way out of misery and inspiring them to live with dignity.No Comments » | Add your comment
There is an enormous use of pesticides in developing nations that has lead to drastic effects, hence making it one of the top concerns for global environmentalists. The use of these pesticides, some of which are totally illegal, has not only led to drastic environmental degradation, but negative effect on climate at large. Importantly, human health has been affected with end users of these farm produce complaining of neurotoxic, reproductive, and dermatologic effects.
In most cases, these pesticides are used to secure supply of food by countering insect-borne diseases. Also, they are widely used in treatment and protections of forests, not to mention the controlling pest attacks on fiber farms and plantations. However, the overdependence of such agents has necessitated that global institutions join hands to seek alternatives to what seems to be an ever-growing global menace.
The volatility and long distance transport of these pesticides from Latin America, Asia, and Africa, has had far reaching global effects that traverse national and geographical boundaries. Statistics indicate that there is a large rural-urban migration in these countries with many people going to the cities in search for jobs. The ripple effect is that the workforce left in the farms has to overwork or use specific means (in this case, pesticides) in order to control pests on their farms.
In the same breath, these countries are playing a vital role in the production of agricultural-based food stuffs for the global population. This is especially for those countries that are located in the colder regions of the areas. In as much as they play a vital role in the entire scenario, the use of these chemicals has negatively impacted both humans and environment.
Challenges Global Institution Face
One of the main problems is that in many of these countries, there are no clear differentiation strategies on which particular chemicals should be used-and which specific types should be avoided. Furthermore, if there are any policies that have been put in place by government, then not many are well implemented. As such, most farmers are unaware of the short-term effects of the problems caused by these pesticides. Neither are they aware of the long transport these pesticides are carried by water and their far reaching effects on other lands and climate.
The lack of educational programs in many of the developing nations has hindered progress on how to counter the use of these pesticides. Furthermore, weak legal frameworks and the lack of adequate training for inspection officer make it quite difficult to control the use of unlawful pesticides in these nations. It is equally important to note that lack of funds to implement some of the programs has led to increased ignorant levels amongst farmers. In as much as many farmers want to add value to their crops and supply on the international market, the continual use of these pesticides is one thing that has always been a big hindrance.
International Institutions Help
It is acknowledged that the use of pesticide is a global problem, and this is why international institutions have come in at least to help educate farmers. In almost all cases, farmers are educated on the use of safety methods and other non-volatile weed control methods that will not have negative effect on the environment as well as humans. For instance, UNEP United Nations-Environmental Programs in conjunction with governments is playing a crucial role not only in influencing policies but also helping educate the remote farmers. They are also pushing governments in Asia, Africa, and Latin America to show more concern about the safety use of pesticides.
The Food and Agriculture Organization, working in cohorts with UNEP, has also tightened the rules in regard to use and trade of food stuff across the globe. As such, this has led to a substantial decrease in the use of harmful pesticides in many of these countries. There are also stringent rules that have been put in place in regard to the international pesticide trade. As matter of fact, this has helped a great deal when it comes to the quality of chemicals that are traded by the involved parties.
In retrospect, the set up pesticide control rules created a better environment for accountability amongst nations and trading partners. It has also been possible for parties in trade and national groups that are concerned to air their views, and at the same time, point out pertinent issues based on the types of pesticides in specific markets. In the long run, this is going to have a counter effect on reduced use of harmful pesticides across the globe.
If all the efforts made are to succeed, there must be consistent efforts form all the stakeholders. So far, there is substantial progress that has been made in the past few years. It is something that will definitely help counter the wrong use of pesticides in developing nations.
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