The year 2015 ended well for floating-garden-enthusiasts!
On 15 December, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) declared floating gardening of Bangladesh as a Globally Important Agricultural Heritage System (GIAHS). This agricultural system has now become one of the 36 systems around the globe, and the first from Bangladesh. A GIAHS is essentially an outstanding land use system or a landscape that has been evolving with a community meeting their needs and desire for sustainable development.
Floating gardening is a traditional agricultural practice in the southern part of Bangladesh. In this farming system, rafts are made on stagnant waters with aquatic plants, mainly water hyacinth. On these platforms, crop seedlings are raised, and vegetables, spices and other crops are cultivated during monsoon. In winter, when water recedes from the wetlands, these rafts are dismantled and mixed with soil as compost to grow winter crops.
In addition to supporting food and nutrition to rural Bangladeshis, this indigenous technology is a good tool for disaster management and climate change adaptation in the wetlands. Floating farming has also been an useful income generation option for wetland dwellers, thus their poverty alleviation, by managing aquatic resources.
Over the past few years, floating gardening has received much global attention, specifically as a means of adaptation to climate change. It has now found its place in the latest authoritative Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Practical Action’s work on floating gardening in Bangladesh is showcased by the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) as a farmer-led sustainable agricultural adaptation technology.
FAO’s latest recognition is a step forward to appreciate the contribution and opportunity of this indigenous technology to mitigating some basic global challenges, like food insecurity, extreme poverty and climate change. Such global appreciation is indeed a result of long-term efforts by many organizations, like, Practical Action, IUCN, CARE and Bangladesh Centre for Advanced Studies (BCAS), to name a few.
It is interesting to note that Bangladesh’s centuries-old floating gardening technology had never left its ‘centre of origin’ − a small area of about 25 sq km − until NGOs started promoting it in the late 1990s. This is particularly fascinating since about 50% of Bangladesh’s 147,570 sq km is basically wetlands.
The recent robust promotion of floating gardening is an excellent example of how an indigenous technology can transform poor people’s lives as an innovation − in new areas, to meet new challenges. There, however, has not been any assessment per se to check if floating gardening is really a sustainable option under changing climate. Such testing is very logical as the growth and survival of water hyacinth is very much dependent on amount of rainfall, length of flooding period, and salinity of water − all to be affected by climate change.
The need for research on floating gardening has repeatedly been raised in recent years. But very limited studies on floating agriculture, however, do not match the overwhelming interest in and increasing recognition of this technology.
It may be argued that floating agricultural practice has reached its pinnacle in Bangladesh by being in practice over centuries. But ever-changing climate and hydrology, people’s economic conditions and aspirations, and our development approaches have been continuously changing the face of floating gardening in newly introduced areas. To cope with these changes and uncertainties, promotion of floating gardening should be backed by organized innovation, planned research, and effective knowledge management.
As we start 2016, floating gardening gives us a fantastic opportunity to go about nature-based solutions to basic development challenges − extreme poverty, food insecurity, climate change − duly supported by evidence, not only by emotion.
Dr. Haseeb Md. Irfanullah is the programme coordinator of IUCN in Bangladesh. He used to lead the disaster risk reduction and climate change programme of Practical Action in Bangladesh. Haseeb can be reached at firstname.lastname@example.org Comments » | Add your comment
The ‘Emolienteros’ are vendors of Emoliente, a beverage made with medicinal plants sold on the streets of Lima. With the availability of different flavours, mixtures and consistencies of the herbal beverage, they provide an unrivalled service for inexpensive on-the-go breakfast/snacks, in Peru’s densely populated capital.
As the third largest city in the Americas, Lima presents a huge market for the Emolienteros, with much potential for growth. This fact is not lost on these ambitious workers. They have been able to form a robust labour union, well-structured into associations in the districts in which they function most.
In a discussion with Walter Villegas, the leader of the Association of Emoliente Workers in the Pueblo Libre district of Lima, as well as the interviews and focus groups we have conducted so far, we have learned about the progress they have made so far, the role technology change has played in their livelihoods, and their plans to start an enterprise.
From zero to hero
Emolienteros that have been working in this sector for 15-20 years recount their earlier experiences of not having associations. As informal workers, they had lacked representation in the city council and in Peru’s Ministry of Labour and Promotion of Employment. As informal workers, they were constantly harassed by the city’s officials for ‘unauthorized’ vending in the streets, making it very difficult to sell their products and make a decent living.
In response, they formed their own labour union association in 1999 (officially recognised in 2007), known as ‘Tradition of the Incas: Natural Product Workers’. Since then, they have been able to push for better rights and recognition, even in the Peruvian parliament. On May 16, 2014, The ‘Law of the Emolientero’ was passed by the congress, hailing them as generators of productive self-employed micro entrepreneurs. Also declared, was the national Day of Emoliente and other traditional natural beverages on 20 February. Furthermore, the local governments signed cooperation agreements with the Emolienteros within the jurisdictions where they work.
Their association has since enjoyed more publicity through wide media coverage of the new Peruvian law. Today, it is considered one of the most prestigious informal sectors in Lima to work in.
Technology change and livelihoods
The impact of technology change on their livelihoods is best understood when analysing The two major benefits of association membership, which are:
- Representation of their interests on a national and city level
- More informed economic decisions through transfer of knowledge.
Having an interconnected network of Emolienteros within different sectors means that news of better and more efficient technologies are more easily accessible by all members of the association, thereby decreases the occurence of asymmetrical information between these informal workers.
The main technologies used by the emolienteros are mobile carts or ‘carretillas.’ They also use freezers to store excess supplies on days with low purchases.
The change from older to better models of carretillas improves efficiency and productivity. As a result they earn slightly more and some have increased leisure time for childcare, or a second job.
This use of improved technology has allowed them to capitalize on the growing industry of Peruvian cuisine, especially since as it has recently gained ground on the international food market.
Due to the advancement of this sector, most of the change within this sector is brought about by reinvestment of income into newer technology.
As a result, today the Emolienteria industry has an economic value of 700 million soles a year, with reported sales exceeding 1,000 million soles a year.
Although the Emolienteros have come a long way, they believe that there is room for improvement. In their plans for technology advancement in the near future, they hope to rent a shop outlet, since rolling the carretillas to and from work is one of their biggest challenges.
Also, they are putting plans in motion to start an enterprise where they manufacture, package and sell the natural products used in their emoliente. This would enable mass production at cheaper rates to cater for the increasing demands of their products and services.
The association of Emolienteros in Lima demonstrate the importance of unionized informal workers in challenging existing bureaucratic conditions, and how advancing the uses of technologies can bring about real positive impacts to improvement of their livelihoods.2 Comments » | Add your comment
Practical Action’s Sustainable Lagoons and Livelihoods Project (SLLP)has been building collaborative governance institutional systems in 18 lagoons in Sri Lanka since 2012. The Department of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (DFAR) is the strategic partner of the project and both DFAR and Practical Action have together been implementing the project. The collaborative or co-governance concept of this project includes law making and policy making processes to decentralize lagoon governance. Thereby, all levels of decision makers and stakeholders are gathered into a single decentralized institutional framework to make unified decisions on utilization, conservation, management, and protection etc. of a lagoon.
Largely due to the successful implementation of this project and positive outcomes generated by this concept, the Department of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources on 17th December, 2015 inaugurated a special unit to facilitate fisheries co-governance in lagoons and estuaries in Sri Lanka. This is the first time in history a special unit meant solely for the governance of lagoon and estuarine fisheries sub-sector has been initiated. The DFAR was established in 1940, even before Sri Lankan independence and has had a management division for the marine fisheries. It can be said that this was one of the key reasons why the lagoon fisheries sub-sector was marginalized. However, the lagoon fishery sub-sector is very important in terms of food security, producing commercially important species and generating varied forms of employment. There are over 200,000 small scale lagoon fishers and fish-workers dependent on lagoons and estuaries for livelihoods in Sri Lanka. This special unit has been named; “Brackish Water Management Unit” (BMU), which will facilitate the required services to govern the lagoons and estuaries in Sri Lanka responsibly and sustainably.
This has been the most significant achievement of the project in terms of internalizing the project concept in the country and bringing the small scale lagoon fisheries sub-sector to the forefront of national development. This process has not been at all easy. Firstly, convincing DFAR on the concept by demonstrating and learning from lessons to change policies often went beyond the financial scope of the project. Thus, the decision to open a special unit was a positive outcome to the project as well as a challenge. The project team had the formidable task of creating networking and facilitating partnership building among numerous stakeholders at all levels. To enable this complex process, UNDP Sri Lanka agreed to co-finance the project’s internalization work along with Practical Action and DFAR. This tri-party work has yielded favourable results. Besides that, the government budget has allocated 30 million Sri Lankan Rupees (around £140,000) for the lagoon fisheries sub-sector, to implement BMN’s action plan next year.
Among the project’s other achievements worthy of mention is the official endorsement of the project concept: fisheries co-governance which was included in the 2013 Amendment to the existing Fisheries Act in Sri Lanka, which has added much value to this process. This legislation will be further updated with lessons of the project’s second phase. This will be a top priority for BMU next year.
The project is now stepping into the final year of its five-year operations and will mainly focus on strengthening the BMU to carry-forward the project concept and replicate it in 116 other lagoons and estuaries in Sri Lanka.No Comments » | Add your comment
In Bangladesh, the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers are both vital and threatening to nearby inhabitants. Monsoon rains cause these great rivers to swell, often flooding villages and fields.
However, during the other months, drought leaves crops, livestock and communities praying for water. Land is scarce, population density is high and poverty and food security are major concerns, especially in the face of this seasonal feast and famine.
It is in this environment that Practical Action’s Pathways From Poverty project was launched in 2009 in the north west part of Bangladesh to lift 31,850 households out of poverty.
The project goal is to reduce the vulnerability of men, women and children to the physical, social and economic effects of river erosion, flooding and other natural disasters in the five districts in northwest Bangladesh. It aims to help those whose villages and farms have been lost through river erosion and are forced to live illegally on flood protection embankments. We offer these communities a wide range of technological support programmes in agriculture, fisheries, livestock, food processing, light-engineering, disability, education, health and nutrition to improve their ability to manage productive livelihoods, including our sandbar cropping project.
A life changing innovation to eradicate extreme poverty
The sandbar cropping project started with the objective “something is better than nothing” but today it has transformed the lives of the landless poor through access to barren transitional sandy land.
Sandbar cropping is a ground-breaking approach to ensuring these harsh landscapes provide for their inhabitants. After each rainy season, large islands of sand appear in the main rivers of Bangladesh. These ‘lands’ are common property resources that generally tend to disappear during the following wet season and, until now, have not been used for any productive purpose. However, this project has successfully used this ever-changing landscape to demonstrate that the growing of pumpkins in small compost pits dug into the sand is both possible and profitable. Large-scale irrigation is not necessary as the land is close to the river channel.
From 2005 to 2014, a total of 15,000 farmers, many of who were women, produced over 80,000 tonnes of pumpkins worth £5.5million at farm gate price by utilising 7,973 acres of sandbar land…and the technology is now spreading to new areas, with a further 15,000 individuals benefiting from it in north west Bangladesh.
Transforming barren landscapes
The pumpkins produced on these sandbars can be stored in people’s houses for over a year. They help poor households both in terms of income generation and year-round food security and lean season management. Sandbar cropping has transformed a barren landscape, and these ‘mini deserts’ have now been turned into productive, green fields.
This innovative cropping technology opens up otherwise unproductive lands and is ideally suited to adoption by displaced and landless households. The technology appears to be low risk, yet shows an impressive financial return. Sandbar cropping is so simple and yet, to our knowledge, no one had thought of this application until the project was first experimented with in 2005. The technology would seem to have a much wider application in other dry areas and could even become an important coping strategy in some areas both at home and abroad adversely affected by climate change.
Revolutionary socio-economic changes for millions
An earmarked policy for the erosion-affected communities to use transitional sandy land for 5-6 months of a year can bring revolutionary socio-economic changes for millions on production, processing and marketing chain on the ground.
Barren land management will enable food production to meet the demand of local, regional and national markets. It will support families by ensuring year-round food security and nutrition, income and employment. It will reduce dependency on external relief and migration to urban areas in search of employment.
The tested innovation can be disseminated in a number of erosion prone districts in Bangladesh to benefit hundreds of thousands of the poor embankment dwellers, affected by river erosion.
Want to help? You can donate to Practical Action’s Pumpkins Against Poverty appeal. This is matched pound for pound by the UK government until 31st December, doubling the impact of your donation.No Comments » | Add your comment
World Fisheries Day falls on the 21st of November of each year. The world observes many events happening around the world commemorating the day; so too this year. Generally, the discussions and themes that revolve around this year have been related to over-exploitation and management of fisheries and aquatic resources. One web-page; Resource for Rethinking says “World Fisheries Day was established to draw attention to overfishing, habitat destruction and other serious threats to the sustainability of our marine and freshwater resources. Observance can also help bring awareness of the importance of aquatic environments in sustaining life both in and out of water.” This basically stresses the importance of raising awareness on the wider concern of site-specific environments of aquatic resources in world fisheries today, whereas another blog by Property Environmental Research Centre reiterates the importance of granting fishers property rights to fish; “… property rights matter – when fishermen have ownership of a share of the fishery, they manage the resource in a sustainable manner. This work has been instrumental in evolving property rights in marine fisheries.”A third blog notes about World Fisheries Day: It is not Just About Fish, that draws the attention on the politics in the fisheries sector by commenting; “World Fisheries Day — established in 1998 and celebrated each year on November 21 — highlights the importance of conserving the ocean and marine life. Sixteen years later, President Barack Obama and U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry continue to make environmental sustainability a foreign policy priority, recognizing the linkages between fisheries, food security, economic welfare, and the health of people worldwide”. All three sample blogs highlight three key aspects.
- World fisheries is in peril largely due to over-exploitation, habitat degradation, pollution, undermining community institutions, Illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing and a host of other factors.
- Giving property rights help manage fisheries. This raises the common property theories and management of natural resources or one may call it as right-based approach to fisheries management.
- Thirdly, how decisions of policy makers and politicians affect the exploitation of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources or Oceans and lagoon ecosystems. This aspect has more to do with the decisions made by politicians or policy makers that get implemented eventually.
These three aspects raise many questions with several grey areas. However, it is clear that there are many players, actors, influencers etc. in the fisheries sector. These actors operate at many scales and levels, it might be in one country with many divisions or multi-country or a continual level. The challenge is, if there is a way to get all types of players involved in making decisions and responsibly managing aquatic resources. To do that, obviously, the legal
and policy environments need to be changed or adjusted accordingly and collectively. Can a process that involves, making law or changing polices and collectively implementing them be called management? I think it is more to do with making decisions and directing, which is more than mere management. Practical Action’s Sustainable Lagoons and Livelihoods Project is implementing such a concept that involves all levels of players making policies, law and implementing them in a legally decentralized institutional framework to responsibly manage the lagoons ecosystems in Sri Lanka. This concept is called collaborative fisheries governance for lagoons which extends beyond mere management of lagoons. The project jointly implemented by the Department of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources has generated many lessons in terms of involving different players, decision makers at different levels into a decentralized forum. On the world fisheries day this year, the project attempted to share the lessons of the co-governance process in Chilaw lagoon Sri Lanka. Chilaw lagoon is one of the largest lagoons in Sri Lanka with about 2,000 fishers and fish-workers. The co-governance process in Chilaw lagoon involves all actors from bottom to top and vice versa engaging in making law, policies and implementing them to govern the lagoon ecosystems. The project facilitated sharing and publicizing this experience by means of a nation-wide radio program which involved all levels of actors from fisher communities to policy makers. The program talked about the lessons of setting up a decentralized institutional framework to facilitate interactions among different actors of Chilaw lagoon fishery value chain. The lessons learned have proved to be invaluable in introducing co-governance mechanisms in 17 other lagoons in Sri Lanka that come within the purview of Practical Action’s Sustainable Lagoons and Livelihoods Project.No Comments » | Add your comment
The weather is always a great conversation topic for us here in the UK. And when it is as extreme as Storm Desmond in the north of England, our hearts go out to those affected. But listening on the radio this morning to Marcus Davidson of Corbridge in Northumbria, I couldn’t help comparing his experience with those of families in Bangladesh.
Shaylo and her son Gias are just one of hundreds of thousands of families in Bangladesh living with the everyday reality of devastating floods. Not just once, but almost every year. They’ve moved five times, not because they were moving into a nicer part of town or so they could have an extra bedroom; but because the floods have destroyed their home.
I really can’t imagine what it must be like to rebuild your home on what seems to be an annual basis; and not just the functional structure of a house, it’s all the other bits that make it your home. The little trinkets that are filled with memories: the drawing your child has brought home from school where you kind of look like a potato – but you don’t mind because it was a present from them to you, so you love it anyway. How do you start over again and again with all that? And climate change will make these events more frequent.
The experience of losing your home and personal treasures to flooding is equally bad for families in England and in Bangladesh. It is in the aftermath that make things are so much worse for Shaylo. She has no insurance or savings, there is little local authority support or helpful service providers to help her get her back on her feet. She is reliant on the support of her community, most of whom are as poor as she is.
|Shaylo Balo, 50, Bangladesh
Marital status: Widow
Job: Labourer, seasonal
Dependents: Gias, aged 14
An average working day for Shaylo involves some physical labour during the harvest season. She could be cutting mud for roads or husking peanuts, and will take home 80 taka (less than £1) for a 12 hour day.
Shaylo usually gets one meal a day, consisting of potatoes or rice. Like any mother would, Shaylo often gives up that meal to make sure Gias is getting enough food.
Shaylo is expecting this year to move for the sixth time in six years. Her home is usually built using materials left behind from the floods, and she and Gias will do the work to rebuild themselves.
How can we help these families get themselves out of this desperate situation?
What on earth can you grow in sand left behind by floods? This summer, despite having perfect soil and great weather conditions for them, I failed miserably at growing some courgettes. I say growing, but what I really mean is replanting a courgette plant from a pot into my garden. Anyway, the fruits of my labour were pitiful and barely worth mentioning. So, again I ask – what can you grow in sand?
As a charity focused on using really simple technology for problems just like this, Practical Action has a solution. Pumpkins. Yep, that’s right. The humble pumpkin is the hero of this story, usually only brought out for Halloween or Thanksgiving, to be carved or turned into a pie, and no doubt thrown away afterwards. Pumpkins grow really well in sand. Not only that, they then provide the much needed nourishment families in Bangladesh are struggling to get – and can also provide a source of income for them. What’s more, the seeds can be regrown, so it’s a long-term, sustainable solution to the problem.
£38.26 is all it takes to give a family everything they need to start growing their own pumpkins in Bangladesh. Less than £40. I’ve been known to spend twice that on my vain attempts to de-frizz my hair, or on a new pair of shoes that have some kind of sparkly element to them. Less than £40 can change lives in Bangladesh.
I would urge you to read more about this wonderfully simple solution and about how you can help to change their lives, and really know you’ve helped someone who needed it.
The UK Government will be matching your donations, pound for pound up until 31 December, so if you donate now, your impact will be doubled – and the number of people that can be helped will be doubled too.No Comments » | Add your comment
Week 1 – agriculture and adaptation
COP21 got off to a rousing start, with some inspirational speeches by heads of state and world leaders. The objective was to inspire and guide the negotiators, however, the promises made appear to have been quickly dampened by national interests resulting in slower than expected progress, and even weakened options.
The first week was dominated by matters concerning agriculture, forests, pastoralism and risk and adaptation. The Nairobi Work Programme on Adaptation (NWP), which feeds adaptation learning into SBSTA, the Subsiduary Body for Scientific and Technical Advice, discussed and presented a range of case studies for successful approaches to adaptation.
But simply putting case studies on websites is totally insufficient. NWP, SBSTA and their members need to facilitate genuine knowledge transfer systems, which can ensure that all stakeholders, including smallholder famers, can access and utilise this knowledge for effective and inclusive climate change adaptation.
The need for Technology Justice
Parties remain cautious over agriculture and its potential to disrupt the negotiations. Factors underpinning this anxiety include concerns about developed nations expecting agriculture to be used for mitigation, and the need – and right – of developing nations to have unrestricted development of their food systems and land use. We continue to advocate for Technology Justice to inform all these decisions. In agriculture, this means greater use of agroecological practices and systems approaches (knowledge and markets) to ensure a just transition for developing countries.
Human Rights Sidelined
Ultimately, the revised draft text released earlier this week is a negative development. The removal of human rights language from the main text to the non-binding preamble undermines the notion of the expected agreement being rooted in justice for all global populations, both now and in the future. This is likely to be a major debate over the coming days as civil society pushes back against this development.
Week 2 – mitigation and energy
The focus in week 2 moves from adaptation and agriculture, to mitigation and energy. While much of the focus is likely to be on the big-emitting nations and technologies, Practical Action will be calling for negotiators to recognise and prioritise the importance of the agreement in shaping future energy access approaches for the 2 billion under-served poor populations globally. This is the biggest opportunity of the century to help developing countries leapfrog towards clean, renewable energy technologies, with a focus on decentralised energy systems to reach the poorest and most marginalised communities.
Gender and social justice
The second week is also the key moment for gender with Tuesday 8th December, gender and climate change day. This is late to influence the negotiations, although if negotiations are progressing slowly the events held on this day may still be able to mobilise political will. The negotiations are stalled currently due to a failure to reach agreement on gender.
What is clear is that the agreement must tackle inequality and put climate justice, human rights and gender equality at the heart of the new climate deal. Climate change is a gross social injustice exacerbating inequality and burdening poor people with impacts that they did little to create. We are not going to eradicate poverty and injustice without tackling equity in all its forms.
- Summary of Practical Action’s policy positions for COP21
- Why Technology Justice is critical for the climate negotiations delivering on loss and damage
- Making climate change mitigation more meaningful
- Why gender approaches matter to climate compatible development
- Climate smart agriculture and smallholder farmers
Other relevant blogsNo Comments » | Add your comment
Have the global negotiations for a new climate agreement switched from a marathon to an egg and spoon race?
We are now in the final leg of the marathon negotiations for a new climate agreement. At the last meeting in Bonn, the negotiators were expected to intensify their pace, but by the end of the meeting it was clear no one had sped up, if anything the pace had slowed. We are now entering the final sprint to the line. In 5 days the 21st Conference of Parties (COP) of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) will take place in Paris. Without a sprint finish it is unlikely that an effective Paris Protocol will be signed.
The Great Climate Race is just one example of what communities around the world are doing to tackle climate change. A fund raising run/walk to raise money for community solar power, because climate change is a race against time!
So what are the core stumbling blocks in the way of delivering a Paris Protocol?
The first barrier is a long standing one around whether developed and developing nations should be treated differently. The issue known as “differentiation” remains a significant hurdle. To be effective the new agreement must build on the original convention text around common but differentiated responsibilities. But it must update the text to match today’s reality and be dynamic to evolve as the world changes. Historical emissions must not be ignored, but the changing dynamics of global emissions means that the text must be flexible enough to respond to changing circumstances.
The second barrier is around finance. For poor and developing nations allocating sufficient resources will be vital to deliver the agreement. At the Copenhagen COP in 2009 developed countries committed to mobilise jointly USD 100 billion dollars a year by 2020. A lack of clarity around these contributions, double counting of existing development assistance and the role of the private sector all continue to hinder progress in this respect.
Thirdly, Loss and Damage continues to divide parties. Some countries hope to see it embedded within the heart of the agreement, while others suggested it should be removed. Lack of action to reduce emissions will lead to a greater need for adaptation. Lack of finance for adaptation will lead to accelerating Loss and Damage. The logic is clear, but still Loss and Damage fails to receive the recognition and importance it deserves.
The Paris COP is supposed to light the way for governments to finally deliver an effective global response to the threat of climate change. However, to avoid another failed UN sponsored global conference it will be vital for politicians to put in the additional legwork to make the Paris Protocol a reality.
We don’t just want an agreement, we need a robust agreement that delivers. Human rights, gender equality and the issue of a just transition must be central to the agreement. A human rights centred agreement offers a holistic approach that makes the connections between the economic, social, cultural, ecological and political dimensions, and links what we are doing to tackle climate change with the Sustainable Development Goals and the Sendai Framework for Action on Disaster Risk Reduction. Is this too much for our children to ask for?
Much effort has been made to build sustainable governance for fisheries. However, fisheries resources are still in grave peril, consequently, the livelihoods of fishers are negatively affected.
Governing common pool resources continues to be a challenge and thus far has proved a failure and a disappointment. Some argue that “the solution” for governing common pool resources is privatization. Of them, fisheries are a much talked about subject.
Contrary to this view, small scale fishers in some places have demonstrated their capacity to govern fishery resources responsibly and sustainably. Despite the fact that much literature has been documented on how fisheries governance works at local, household and community levels, today governments, development workers, researchers and scientists are struggling to build sustainable fisheries governance. It is obvious something is amiss. What is it? Does it have something to with the activity of building governance or lack of understanding of the factors that underpin the sustainability of governance systems? Given this, it is imperative that we look at the factors that have contributed to long standing self-governance systems in fisheries in order to explore the potential and conditions for these local institutions to sustain governance functions for extended periods. The following case is from Sri Lankan lagoon, which tells us about a traditional fisheries self-governance system that has existed for generations.
Chilaw lagoon is located along the North Western coast of Sri Lanka. It is believed that Chilaw’s traditional Stake-net (“Kattu Del”) fishery originated between 1460 -1464 and it continues to date. More than 500 fisher families in Chilaw lagoon are totally dependent on stake-net fishery. This system was first registered by a Gazette notification in 1936 and with subsequent amendments re-Gazetted in 1986 and 1996 respectively.
Stake-net fishery is a self-governance system, not a just a community-based fisheries management system. Why is this called a governance system? While the term management has reference to action related to activities, the term governance implies direction-driven management and decision making. And, the self-governance system adds dimensions that are absent in fisheries management. This governance system is built on the social, ethical and religious values of the fisher community. Environmental conservation is a primary concern. The stake-net fishing is carried out according to the cycle of the moon. On full moon days, fishers experience best fish catch and they operate all the stake-nets assigned to a group whereas in the interim, during the waxing and waning of the moon, they reduce the fishing traps. Most importantly, the fishing traps catch prawns that go out of the lagoon with tide-out. This natural phenomena is largely affected by the appearance of the moon. The values in their governance system are
- Equity ensuring that measures are in place for equal distribution of fish harvesting among the fisher groups
- Environmental sustainability making provision for succeeding generations to continue harvesting fish as a reliable means of livelihood
- Stewardship ensuring that fisher groups maintain Ownership, Responsibility, Accountability and Reward towards governing the lagoon ecosystem. This is transferred from generation to generation.
- Maintaining peace among the groups is managed according to religious values.
- Social well-being is sustained by contributions to the church for social well-being of the community
- Transparency is ensured by decisions that are arrived at collectively and communicated formally and clearly to all concerned.
- Democracy in practice is followed by ensuring that rules and management actions are drafted and adopted based on the consensus of the majority.
- A mutually agreed upon system of Inclusion and exclusion has been adopted to reduce fishing pressure to ensure sustainability
The unique stake-net group’s collaborative use of the Chilaw lagoon’s shrimp resources and its proven resilience is an example that merits emulation. This system of self-governance has endured for four centuries and continues to provide a means of livelihood to eight groups of shrimp fishers. This indicates that similar self-governance systems can be replicated among other lagoon communities in Sri Lanka or elsewhere. This is in contrast with mere management practices that are action oriented but short-lived. Importantly, this shows the critical role played by values and a time-tested governance system to ensure sustainability of lagoon resources and livelihoods of lagoon fishers.
The Sustainable Lagoons and Livelihoods project in Sri Lanka has been working with 18 lagoons to build fisheries governance. Chilaw lagoon is one of them. Through working with Chilaw lagoon fishers, the project identified the local governance system and began to further legally strengthen this self- governance into a decentralized collaborative fisheries governance process with all stakeholders who are representing different decision making levels; collective, operational, policy and constitutional on one interactive platform to make unified decisions on the utilization of the Chilaw lagoon ecosystem. This is driven by their own time-tested values and principles.
This short video describes their system further.
Sustainable Lagoons and Livelihoods Project (SLLP) is funded by Big Lottery Fund, UK and jointly implemented by Practical Action Sri Lanka and Department of Fisheries and Aquatic ResourcesNo Comments » | Add your comment
In the natural resource management arena common pool resources and open access are two aspects that are discussed at length. These topics continue to be challenging to researchers, practitioners, scientists and governments across the world. Sri Lanka is no exception.
These challenges are clearly manifested in the small-scale lagoon fisheries sub-sector in Sri Lanka. About 116 lagoons and estuaries can be found around the island. Around 200,000 people are dependent on these intricate ecosystems for livelihoods. These lagoons and estuaries are very complex social ecological systems, posing different challenges in governing them. Sustainable Lagoons and Livelihoods Project (SLLP) has been jointly working with the Department of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (DFAR) to build sustainable governance of 18 lagoons in Sri Lanka. This is a really challenging project which has generated a host of lessons.
As Elinor Ostrom, the Nobel Prize winner in Economics in 2009 expressed it: “Clear property boundaries are a requirement for governing common properties”. This is the first requirement for building sustainable governance for natural resources. This process however, presents formidable challenges.
Often, property boundaries of lagoon ecosystems are established by fixing concrete posts around their perimeters. Past lessons from Sri Lanka show that such physical demarcation of the lagoon ecosystem boundaries does not work, due to relentless illegal encroachments taking place which renders further steps in the process dysfunctional. Landowners around lagoons possess old deeds, containing much ambiguity and lack of specific boundaries. This has been exploited by encroachers. How this happens is an interesting area for study. Often old deeds may include a clause such as; “eastern part of this land goes up to the lagoon”. This clause creates much ambiguity in defining the boundary between land and a lagoon. This ambiguity is used to advantage by encroachers by filling the edges of the lagoon and moving the concrete posts towards the lagoon. This has led to a situation where lagoon water surfaces are increasingly forced to shrink while the surrounding land is illegally extended. Finally, this gives rise to social conflicts among different users of the lagoon ecosystems resulting in small-scale lagoon fishers being victimized.
The SLLP and DFAR began searching for alternatives, and innovatively introduced GPS technology to map-out the lagoon boundary catchment areas. This led to detailed maps being agreed upon for each lagoon for the first time. Because GPS points are indisputable and specific, the lagoons cannot be illegally encroached. Even if the concrete post are moved towards the lagoons, encroachments can be easily identified because established GPS points do not change. The process entails developing detailed maps with GPS points that will be legally declared as Lagoon Management Area. This is formalized by public Gazette notification. Subsequently, the Co-governance committee along with Lagoon Fisheries Management Committees (LFMCs) of a lagoon ecosystem can take legal action against violators in the event of illegal encroachment. This is a major deterrent to encroachers. Furthermore, these maps serve as indicators in the physical mapping of fish species and help as a monitoring tool for all stakeholders who are in the co-governance committee meetings.
The first Gazette notification of this kind has been published for the Kokkilai lagoon. This lagoon spreads into two provinces; northern and eastern in Sri Lanka. Since this involves two different administrative divisions plus different social economic and political contexts, having clear proper boundaries has expedited the fisheries co-governance process, facilitating interactions between different stakeholders to develop a Kokkilai Lagoon governance plan. This process will further be replicated in other lagoons of the SLLP project while doubtlessly providing more lessons to improve demarcation work.
The advantage here is that stakeholders such as fishers, farmers or extension workers can provide information to take legal action against encroachers and keep tabs on whether lagoon ecosystems are encroached by simply using of smart phones. This is an initiative that uses ICT to add value to fisheries governance.No Comments » | Add your comment