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  • A better life for women and girls


    B26, Sudan, | August 8th, 2017

    Poverty, marginalisation, traditions and customs together with gender blind plans and policies contribute to gender inequality in Sudan.

    Women and girls are traditionally responsible of all domestic work in Sudanese houses.  Moreover, they are burdened by water and wood daily fetching journeys which consume between three to eight hours per day in the dry regions of Darfur, Kordofan and East Sudan. Housewives spend much time and effort on unpaid activities (water and wood fetching) and are exposed to sometimes fatal hazards associated with sexual violence, abortion incidences and severe injuries.

    Water pump SudanAdolescent girls often drop out of school to help their families with domestic work and to look after their younger siblings in the absence of mothers. Young women lack the knowledge and skills required to engage in formal employment and are trapped in the poverty cycle without any income generating sources.

    These dependant girls are usually married under-age which increases morbidity and mortality rates among mothers and newborns. Registered early marriage between girls 15-19 years reached 26% in the rural areas of Sudan. Shockingly, child marriage for girls under 15 reaches 10% in the same areas.

    Practical Action Sudan puts women at the heart of its work. In our three year strategic business plan 2017-2020, we intend to prioritise women needs and transform their lives in a positive way that will impact the whole community.

    Women associations and institutions are identified as key actors in our programme. They represent our main implementing partners and supporting researchers in the field of clean fuels. Rural women are involved in our projects at community level and participate in the development process through participating in activities such as membership of water committees in WASH projects. They also manage women farms in agricultural-resilience projects and grow nutritious food for their children and to increase families’ incomes.

    WDAN, SudanThrough increasing women participation; we open the door for thousands of women to be socially empowered. Our participatory approaches and actions ensure that women needs and priorities are well-represented and they are equally involved in the projects.

    “I and village’s women walk to fetch water in the early morning and return back by the sunset! our kids stay without food for long time.” Haleema, 43 years old, from Mogabil Village, North Darfur

    Building the capacity of rural women and girls is one of the most important strategies of tackling poverty among women and their families. Training programs support women to become effective income generators, and empower them to create their own market opportunities and improve their livelihoods.

    community meeting sudanMany life changing experiences on the ground tell inspiring stories about Sudanese women who have moved from poverty, dependency and ignorance into productivity, independence and participation in decision-making as a socio-economical impact of our development interventions in rural areas. I believe that the approaches we adopt are very effective, as women’s empowerment is not a decision to be taken or a service to be delivered; it is a process of improving the environment of women and equipping them with the necessary knowledge and skills to find their way and embrace opportunities with dignity.

    “The training program delivered by Practical Action staff has empowered us and upgraded our capacity to expand our network and reach greater number of rural women.” Hanan Zayed, Head of Kassala Women Development Associations Network

    Our team in Sudan will continue the steps we have planned toward empowering women and changing their lives. We believe that the track toward gender transformation is long and tough; however continuous hard work and advocacy efforts will ensure we achieve our ambition and help millions of Sudanese women to achieve the good life they deserve.

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  • From a kitchen worker to an evolving agriculture entrepreneur: an inspiring story of Rudra Chaulagain


    July 26th, 2017

    Rudra Prasad Chaulagain, a 40 year-old man is a skilled farmer, technician and an evolving entrepreneur.  Before 2009, his identity was different – he was a kitchen helper at one of the capital’s hotel casinos.

    Rudra grew up in a low income family of 7. Due to poverty, he was unable to complete his formal education and had to leave his family at 18 to earn a living. He worked in the Royal Casino as a kitchen helper for 13 years.  This due to the national conflict and insurgency and he was out of job and in a state of anxiety over what to do.

    “For 13 years, I only worked in kitchen. I had no other work skills besides kitchen experience. The country was in a state of insurgency and my family was worrying what to do next.”

    At the time, poultry farming was popular all over the country and he too was inspired to take up poultry farming as his new career. He purchased an old house in Godavari, a former VDC (Village Development Committee) of Lalitpur district. With his small savings, he leased one ropani (1 ropani = 508.72 sq m) land and started poultry farming with 1000 broiler and 1000 layer chickens. However, the things did not go as per his expectation.

    Rudra feeding chicken. Photo (c) RIRC/Archana Adhikari

    “We were unfortunate. We lost most of the chickens to unknown diseases. We could not recognise the actual cause of death on time and even local agro-vet could not help us. We incurred great loss…”

    Rudra and his wife realised that they lacked necessary knowledge and skills to effectively run the poultry business. They thought about switching to dairy . They already had good experience of keeping cows (they had kept one cow for household milk consumption), so they started a dairy farm by buying two additional cows. In the meantime, his wife got information about Practical Answers services being run through a community library from her neighbours. They visited community library- RIRC (READ Information and Resource Centre), Badikhel and shared their story seeking help.

    Rudra participated in the expert interaction on “Animal Health and Livestock Management”.  Under his leadership,  a ‘Professional Farmers Group’ was formed and registered at the local authority  as the local government prioritises registered farmers’ groups while providing services, subsidies and grants. With the help of the CLRC, Rudra was also selected for a two month long “Community Livestock Assistant (CLA) Training”, organised by the Council for Technical Education and Vocational Training (CTEVT) Nepal.

    Rudra in cow shade. Photo (c) RIRC/Archana Adhikari

    “I had passion to do whatever I needed to do but knowledge matters in all cases. If you do not have enough knowledge, you will never succeed. I had faced huge loss and economic crisis earlier. Thanks to RIRC Badikhel, without their help I would have never come to this stage. I am here only because of my dedication, family support and most importantly the continuous support and guidance of Practical Answers services run by the CLRC.”

    After being trained on poultry farming, he took it up again. Now, he has 800 layer and 2000 broiler chickens, all healthy. He has also added two more cows to his herd.

    Rudra and his wife collecting eggs. Photo (c) RIRC/Archana Adhikari

    Recently, after participating in three day training on “Dairy Product”, jointly organised by Practical Answers services of CLRC and VSO International on October 2016, Rudra has started a milk collection and chilling centre. In addition to 45 litres of milk produced in his own farm, he collects 200 litres milk on an average daily. He sells paneer, ghee and surplus milk from his chilling centre.

    Rudra participating in “Dairy Product” training. Photo (c) RIRC/Archana Adhikari

    “I feel very happy. Now I am making profit from my business. I am helping other small farmers as well. Now, they don’t need to worry about the market.”

    Now, his children (one son and one daughter) are studying in one of the reputed English medium schools. He has also bought 10 anna (1 ropani equals to 16 anna) land by the side of his house and started kitchen gardening.

    Rudra selling his farm produce to a costumer. Photo (c) RIRC/Archana Adhikari

    “We are very much hopeful and optimistic about the future. My family especially my wife supports in making decision and managing all the business. We both participate in each and every activity of the CLRC alternately. We also share our knowledge and experience to other community members through the library. In fact, we are indebted by the library and its knowledge works.”

    (Information and photographs collected by Archana Adhikari, RIRC Badikhel.)

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  • Mesquite clearance in Darassa – from dream to reality


    July 25th, 2017

    Ahmed Mohammed Tahir Betay, President of Kassala state Legislative Council and former commissioner of Telkuk, admired the Darassa catchment integrated water resource action plan, saying that ‘to demonstrate the whole is better than only a part’.

    Mesquite clearance in DarassaHe decided to help implement this action plan by sharing his knowledge of cleaning mesquite from Telkuk town when he was commissioner there. This resulted in increased water supply in hand dug wells during the dry season.  So he will have support for this idea in Darassa, along with the scientific evidence and feasibility studies for the subsurface dam and the rehabilitation of Girgir Dam.

    The action plan aims to increase groundwater recharging and promote water facilities in Darassa. This village, which has a small reservoir and nine hand pumps, suffers from chronic water shortages during dry season .

    In community gathering in the village level Ahamed Mohamed Tahir launched the idea of removing mesquite, an invasive tree which affects both water availability and agricultural production.

    Increased water in wellsAt the gathering  during his visit to the subsurface dam construction in Darassa he said:

    “I realize that the subsurface dam is a new scientific innovation for this area and I hope it will be successful.  But besides that we will clear the mesquite which will be a bonus.  I declare to you all that Darassa catchment will be clear from mesquite and I am here to launch it. My contribution is the excavator machine and the community will cover the fuel, lubricant and operational and driving costs. We will lead the process from here to other places Practical Action working in Girgir dam, Misud and elsewhere. ’’

    This declaration puts Practical Action Sudan and the community on the verge of great hope.  There are challenges  and accountability issues, so the big question is whether this tremendous opportunity can be implemented well.  It is hope that, with this leadership from the government all partners will share in supporting this enterprise.

     

     

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  • Toilet trouble in the slums of Odisha


    July 21st, 2017

    Last week I travelled to Choudwar in the state of Odisha, India to visit a project being funded by H&M Foundation.  We took along with us two influential fashion and beauty vloggers Dress Like a Mum and Ms Rosie Bea to show them the realities of a life without adequate sanitation.

    The women and children that we met in the community are forced to relieve themselves in an open field, exposed to prying eyes.  They risk sexual assault as well as snake bites and contracting malaria from mosquitoes. If this wasn’t bad enough, women who are on their periods have absolutely no privacy.

    But all that is about to change. With funding from the H&M Foundation, we will be building toilets, a faecal sludge treatment plant and rainwater harvesting systems to change the lives of the women and children that we met (and the men too!).

    I spoke to a few people today about my recent trip to India (including a woman who stopped me in the street to say she enjoyed my photos (thank you again) It was such an honour to be invited to work with @practical_action & @hmfoundation – to actually see direct results and to meet the wonderful people who will benefit from the life changing projects they are working on. The things I saw, people I meet and places we visited will stay with me for life, at times I felt like I was inside a TV program – it was unreal, humbling and inspiring. Thanks for all your kind words, support and for following my trip – videos to follow next week x And big thanks to @practical_action for all that you do for the world ❤️ #dresslikeamuminindia #india #practicalactionindia #practicalaction #hm #hmfoundation

    A post shared by Zoë de Pass (@dresslikeamum) on

    It was fantastic to open Zoe and Rosie’s eyes to these issues, to help them understand the problems that people are facing and how we are going to work together to fix them.

    We were given such a warm welcome, particularly when we arrived laden with make-up for the teenagers in the community. We lost count of the number of fingernails that were painted and blue eye shadow that was applied!

    Working with ‘social influencers’ like Zoe and Rosie is a new thing for us but is really helping us to reach new audiences with our work. We’ll be back in November once the toilets are under construction – watch this space!

    Watch Rosie’s video about the visit

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  • From perceptions to policy: nationwide climate impact survey aims to fill the data gap


    July 20th, 2017

    Written by Dipak Biswokarma and Yelisha Sharma

    Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) and Practical Action have worked together to conduct the ground breaking ‘National Climate Change Impact Survey 2016’ in Nepal

    The climate change impact is highly visible globally and is affecting human lives and the entire ecosystem. Effects/ impacts are more alarming in the least developed and most vulnerable countries like Nepal. Effects/Impacts are more crucial on major livelihood dependent sectors such as agriculture, water, forest, biodiversity and energy. However, data gap on climate change issues has continued to be a hindrance to facilitate planning and policy process to build climate resilient communities.

    In such a context, the formal launch of National Climate Change Impact Survey (NCCIS) 2016 Report, by the Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS), Nepal – the only statistical authority for the government – on 21st June 2017 is a breakthrough in fulfilling information needs on public awareness, understanding, feeling and experiences on climate change and its impacts on various sectors and livelihoods in Nepal. This lays a baseline to measure the progress and achievements of efforts that the country would invest in solving the problems associated with climate change impacts through adaptation and mitigation measures.This initiative is an outcome of the technical support from Practical Action on behalf of ACT (Action on Climate Today) .

    Launch of National Climate Change Impact Survey Report

    The survey is a first of its kind in Nepal and has aimed to contribute on bridging the data gap on climate change issues and making it available while needed for regular planning process. It offers statistical data, at the national level, on perception and knowledge about climate change, climate induced disasters, climate change impacts on natural resources, bio-diversity, and health (animals and humans) sectors, and adaptation practices (farm and off- farm); by encompassing all 75 districts across all three physiographic regions– hills, mountains, and Terai. This report is anticipated to be a useful source for government agencies while developing policies and incorporating the areas related to climate change across multiple sectors.

    The full report can be accessed here.

    Major findings of the survey:

    • About half of the total households (49.33%) in Nepal have heard about climate change and radio is the main source of such information. Majority of households in the mountain (63.59%) and female respondents (60.92%) are found to have not heard about the climate change.
    • Almost all households (99.33%) reported that they have observed increase in drought as climate induced disaster while 97.69%households observed so in disease/insects and sporadic rain in the past 25 years.
    • Maximum households (66.09%) observed appearance of new insects while 60.25% have observed emergence of new disease on crops.
    • A 74.29%of total households have observed changes in water sources whereby 84.47%observed decrease in amount of surface water. The mountain region seems to have higher impact of depleting water resources as 74.56% household have reported complete drying up of surface water.
    • Majority of households have reported an increase in invasive species of shrubs. A 92.03% of households have observed invasive creepers in agricultural land among which 92.03 % households perceived that it has contributed to decrease in their income.
    • Households have been adopting both farm and off-farm based adaptation options to cope with climate change impacts. A total of 70.64%households reported that they have changed the food consumption habit while 56.72%reported to be engaged in community based natural resource management activities to adapt to climate change impacts.

    “The National Planning Commission had demanded for the nation representative data on climate change impacts and adaptation from the local communities’ level, which could guide the national policies. This National Climate Change Impact Survey, led by the CBS with support from Practical Action, has come up with vast evidence, not only on impacts but also on the adaptation practices at the community level. These evidences could go beyond programs and projects and will support policy making at all levels.” (Dr. Suman Raj Aryal, Director General, CBS during NCCIS Report Launching)

    In addition to the report itself, the process adopted and the engagement Practical Action has had with CBS is equally significant. Practical Action has closely worked with CBS from concept building to report preparation, finalization and publication. Moreover, it has played a key role on providing capacity enhancement trainings to CBS officials on climate change issues and also offering sectoral expertise on demand. This is an exemplary case of how Practical Action has worked hand in hand with the national government agency to bring out a policy influencing document and a critical time for Practical Action to think on how to continue such fulfilling partnerships.

    The survey work and findings were widely appreciated from diverse stakeholders including academia and development practitioners and has received significant media coverage at the national level:

    Republica Daily                  Kantipur Television                  Kantipur Daily

    The challenge ahead lies in disseminating and motivating relevant stakeholders to utilise the evidence from such perception survey while planning and implementing relevant policies and programmes. In a changed political context, where Nepal is moving towards a federal structure; CBS and Practical Action have an opportunity to continue this partnership. Joint efforts are needed such as producing policy briefs, mapping and identification of relevant stakeholders at the local and national level and organizing introductory workshops for them to raise awareness on the report so that it can be put to use. The report’s credibility and utility would further upsurge if the findings are triangulated with available hydro-meteorological data in the country.

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  • Imagine bringing up your toddler here?

    I recently visited Kisumu, Kenya, where Practical Action is working with two local partner organisations (KUAP and Umande Trust) in a five-year project to transform the sanitation situation for 64,200 residents of the city’s informal settlements.

    Drains polluted with waste and human faeces, Obunga, Kisumu (c) Practical Action, Patrick Meinhardt

    We visited families to understand the extreme challenges faced by parents and carers looking after children under 5 years. As a Mum of two, the youngest of whom turns 6 next month, I could easily make comparisons. There are so many different stages babies, toddlers and children go through in those years, and so many challenges to keeping them healthy and happy. This area has been acknowledged as a blind spot within the already blind spot of understanding how to make progress on sanitation.

    If my children catch one of those nasty ‘winter vomiting bugs’ I know I’m in for a hard time. All that extra washing and cleaning up, and trying to bleach every surface I might have inadvertently contaminated.

    Now imagine dealing with 10 month-old twins with diarrhoea and vomiting with cloth nappies which have to be washed by hand, and where you can’t afford expensive cleaning products. No wonder the whole family got sick.

    Family from Obunga, Kisumu, with their older boy and one of their 10 month old twins (c) Practical Action, Patrick Meinhardt

    Children are generally taken out of nappies far earlier in developing countries than in the UK – and it seems that can mean more accidents, that can be hard to clean up where floors are not just mud or concrete and not easily wiped.

    And when children are old enough to manage their own toileting, the pit latrines adults use are not places for children. They are often filthy with excrement on various surfaces, and not designed to be used with little legs. Parents would rather put down old newspapers for children, or get them to use a potty, with the contents disposed in the toilet. But then again, sometimes children have to be left while the parent is at work in which case they are more inclined to just use an open space outside.

    Latrines are often generally avoided by young children (c) Practical Action, Patrick Meinhardt

    This is not uncommon. In a global study in countries with poor sanitation, UNICEF found that over 50 percent of households with children under age three reported that the faeces of their children were unsafely disposed of. Even among households with improved toilets or latrines, some unsafe child faeces disposal behavior was reported by caregivers.

    Every time these children and carers want to wash their hands they need to get the basin, soap and container of water out separately. It’s enough of a struggle to remind my children to always wash their hands and that’s when the basin is right there with soap on hand.

    Handwashing (c) Practical Action, Patrick Meinhardt

    Practical Action is working to transform the situation – using a combination of school-led and community-led total sanitation, which uses visual demonstrations to explain how an environment polluted with so much faeces is damaging everyone’s health. Encouraging handwashing and making it easier is also an important focus. We’ve been running the programme for a little over a year with good results so far, and action will be ramping up in the coming year. With the support of Public Health Officers and a cadre of amazingly motivated ‘natural leaders’ from the community we think the collective behaviour change needed will be ignited.

    As one Public Health Officer told me: “it’s one thing to force people to build toilets, but that’s not the answer. What matters is that they are used by everyone all the time.” And that’s the change we’re aiming for: a shit-free environment and a healthy future for Kisumu’s children.

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  • Flood Early Warning Systems from a Gender Lens


    July 13th, 2017

    BIO: Prior to her master studies at the University of Edinburgh’s International Development, İpek Aybay has worked at a voluntary business organization of leading entrepreneurs and executives of the business community in Turkey as an expert at the Information Society and Innovation Department where she has made research on technology, innovation and development. Currently, she works at UNHCR head office in Ankara, Turkey as a Senior Protection Assistant. 

    We are mentioning technology as a tool for changing our lives so often that it has become a ‘cliché’. This mentioned “change” however, seems to be very relative depending on which part you live in the world. As an example, for someone living in a country not exposed to natural hazards, technology is in most cases a tool to facilitate daily life, using GPS system to find address or to check traffic jam. On the other hand, in countries like Bangladesh and Nepal where natural hazards happen frequently, technology could save lives. In this sense, Early Warning Systems (EWS) for floods are an example for proving the crucial role of technology in disaster risk reduction.

    When we look at the role of technology in development and resilience, we can easily realise that this subject is almost always paradoxical. While some advocate it strongly, others criticise it harshly. For this reason, when I had to choose my dissertation subject at the International Development Department of the University of Edinburgh, disaster risk reduction seemed a very convenient area of study. Practical Action’s EWS projects in Nepal and Bangladesh immediately drew my attention and I decided to study these programmes from a gender lens. Why I selected Nepal and Bangladesh? And why this perspective was needed?

    A woman using one of Practical Action’s tube wells in Bangladesh

    Nepal and Bangladesh were two key countries for proving the significance of EWS, as both countries are part of a continent where 95% of the people who are affected by floods have lived in the last decade according to CRED and UNISDR.  Despite many differences in the ways in which these countries are affected by floods, EWS in both countries have a great potential to save lives and reduce the impact of natural hazards. For this reason, Practical Action has developed various projects concerning EWS in close collaboration with the governments of Nepal and Bangladesh. My main objective was to reveal the gender gap in these projects in order to better assess impacts of disaster resilience activities.

    As the efficiency of flood EWS depends on the ways in which people perceive and process risk information[1], without understanding the risk perception of communities and the factors affecting their decisions, it is not possible to expect EWS to operate efficiently. A variety of factors ranging from gender and socio-economic status to cultural values can affect the ways in which EWS operate among which gender can be specified as an essential factor.

    Scholars suggest that women are affected disproportionately by floods and are often referred to as the ‘most vulnerable’ by different institutions that are involved in flood response. For instance, UNIFEM (2010) reports that during the 2010 floods in Pakistan, despite flood EWS in place, there were women who refused to leave their houses for reasons such as “disbelief of flood warning; concerns of theft or occupation of, or losing claim to property; reluctance to move to camps due to cultural norms, and hesitation about taking women and girls out of protected environment of homes exposing them to strangers”. Furthermore, as evidenced by various scholars, floods also increase “women’s domestic burden” as in most households women depend on their houses for sustaining their livelihoods. In contrast, although it is known that a gender-inclusive EWS is essential for reducing loss of lives, the gender factor is often neglected when designing related projects. For this reason, it is very important to consider flood EWS in a gender framework, rather than define it as a technical process independent from the gender and power relations in place.

    Mother and daughter at flood-proof community, Bangladesh

    I conducted semi-structured interviews with government officials, Practical Action employees from different country offices, local NGOs and international organisations. During my work based placement with Practical Action, I found out very interesting differences in gender aspect of EWS projects among country offices as well as between advisory and project implementation levels. One of the most prominent findings was that different people had different interpretations of the terms “gender-sensitive” and “gender-disaggregated”. This has led to variations in the responses to the questions around gender in both of my focus countries, Nepal and Bangladesh. In the Nepali context, I was able to speak to a government official and it was puzzling to see that INGOs and in particular Practical Action was referred as more involved with the gender aspect of flood EWS at the community level. Therefore, understanding gender interpretations within organisations is essential as their actions directly affect communities and their responses to disasters. On the other hand, it was not surprising to find out that donors were also key players about the gender inclusiveness level of the projects as there were clear differences when a gender goal was set by a donor organisation and when it was not.

    Unfortunately, there was a considerable evidence to suggest that in both Nepal and Bangladesh, gender dynamics of EWS are often neglected or seen as an external factor by the key organisations as well as governments. In relation to this, further research is needed to explore the ways in which EWS programmes could move beyond the current approach based on needs in order to adopt a gender approach. Indeed, it is essential for an NGO to have the same understanding of gender-sensitive programme making among its staff members. If the views in this regard are different or opposed in an institution, procedural documents cannot deliver their aims in the field. Instead, it could exacerbate the already existing gender power relations as gender roles amplify the liability on the already overburdened women during the time of the disasters.

    Community visit to early warning tower

    My experience with Practical Action enriched my knowledge in many ways. Being a part of the organisation at all times made it easier to contact key staff as well as government officials. Further, as I was affiliated with the University of Edinburgh, I believe this allowed me to study and analyse the institution relatively more objectively. In conclusion, I believe the practice programme has been beneficial both for me and for the organisation, especially with regards to the communication within the organisation around gender issues. It is possible to see that, when people become aware of each other’s varying interpretations of the same issue, it could help them to rethink of their actions, re-evaluate their approach and eventually reinvent their influence on the communities. According to me, this was the most important positive outcome.

    [1] Twigg, J. “The Human Factor in Early Warnings: Risk Perception and Appropriate Communications” (2003).

     

    Curious to find out more? Have a look at Practical Action’s publications: 

    Flood Early Warning System in Practice: Experiences of Nepal

    Delivering Early Warning Systems for the Poorest: From flood-vulnerable to flood-resilient communities

     

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  • Progress in Pictures


    July 13th, 2017

    Prepared by Rabindra Singh and Yugdeep Thapa

    Practical Action has been implementing the project “Strengthening the Supply Chain of Construction Materials” in Nuwakot and Rasuwa districts  of Nepal since June 2016. The UKAID funded project aims to help the earthquake affected households acquire quality construction materials at competitive price while rebuilding their houses. The following pictures portray the project activities

    On the cutting edge: The stone cutting machine, a simple technology, introduced in Nuwakot and Rasuwa districts after the earthquake can cut upto 90   corner/through stones in a day, an exceptionally high number compared to 5- 6 stones produced manually. This reduces the cost of the corner/through stones by more than half and significantly saves labour cost for building stone houses. A household can save up to Rs 25,000 ($250) while building a 2 rooms stone masonry house using the machine made corner/through stones.

    Stone cutting work underway at Bhorle, Rasuwa/Thapa Y

    Stone cutting machine/Thapa Y

    Crushing rocks, building dreams: Sanu Tamang has been living in a temporary shelter in Dhunche since the 2015 earthquake, which reduced her house and nearly all of her village in Hakku-3  Rasuwa into rubbles. Ever since, she is making her living by crushing aggregates and nursing her dream to return to her village one day. The project is helping her and internally displaced people like her by organising them into groups, providing tools and safety gears and linking them to potential customers. Their income has increased  by 2 folds after the project support .

    Sanu Tamang at work/ Singh R

    Breaking boundaries:  With the current trend of the male population, especially in rural villages, migrating abroad for better employment opportunities, the female workforce has stepped up in the reconstruction process. They are engaged in construction materials production as entrepreneur and workers,  and as skilled mason in house construction.The women are earning Rs 700 ( $70) per day working in the enterprises and Rs 1200 ( $120) working as the skilled mason.

    The all-women workforce busy producing earth blocks in a project supported Compressed Stabilized Earth Block ( CSEB) enterprise in Uttargaya rural municipality/Thapa Y

    A Female mason building project supported model house at Rasuwa /Shrestha S

    Hitting the airwaves: Radio Langtang, partner radio station of the project, is yet another example of women breaking barriers. The station is operated by an all-female staff and is a bold statement in the traditional hilly areas of Rasuwa. The Radio broadcasts the project supported programme Suraktshit Baas for raising awareness on construction materials.

    Production team at Radio Langtang/Thapa Y

    Fate failed her but technology  helping her rise : Nigma Waglung, 48, migrated to Karmi dada Rawuwa, after a devastating landslide razed her house at Ramche to ground in 2057. She worked really hard to build a new house at Karmi Dada, only to lose it  to the earthquake in 2074. Nigma, single mother of two children, has been living in a temporary shelter, with no means ( and real zeal ) to build yet another house. However, a new Cement Stabilized Earth Block (CSEB)  factory supported by project in her village, has rekindled her hopes. CSEB are cheaper than fired bricks and requires less mortar and labor to build wall with. She has also been chosen for building project supported model house, which will save her labor cost.

    Nigma Waglung in front of her under construction house /Singh R

    Reining in the price : Maha- laxmi Cooperative, a women’s cooperative in Bhorle, Rasuwa, is responsible for demand aggregation of the surrounding communities. The cooperative in coordination with a national level supplier is able to provide construction materials to earthquake affected people up to 10% in discount rates than the market. This is possible through the project developed demand aggregation model, where collective demand and direct linkage with national level suppliers eliminates several middlemen whereby making construction materials prices significantly lower than the market prices.

    Mrs Chandra Kumari Paneru, the Chairperson of Maha Laxmi Co-operative sharing the benefits of demand aggregation/Singh R

    Weighing a sack of cement in Bhorle resource centre/ Singh R

    Quality assurance :  The influx of substandard construction materials is one of the major challenges for building resilient houses. To put a check on it , the project has been providing  local cooperatives engaged in demand aggregation  basic skills and simple equipment to check the quality of construction materials.

    Resource person at Bhorle checking the diameter of iron rebar with vernier caliper/Singh R

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  • Knowledge transforming livelihood


    July 10th, 2017

    “My family needs were escalating every day and I used to wonder, what I need to do to fulfill my family needs,” says 35-year old Kamala Pandey, a resident of Kawasoti-15, Godar, Nawalparasi.

    Kamala Pandey by her cow shade Photo (c) Practical Action/Ananta Prasad

    Kamala Pandey, a mother of three, struggled a lot to meet her family’s basic needs while juggling personal struggles like debt, and other challenges. Her husband who used to support her by running small rice mill was unable to generate enough income to meet growing demands of family. She was frustrated as she didn’t have any opportunity to shape her life and make a right choice to change her livelihood.

    She also thought of migrating to urban areas hoping it will bring new opportunities. However, it was also not that much easy as it requires huge amount of money to migrate to a city and seek opportunities. Financial worries are not new to Kamala, who grew up in penury but she was much worried about her children’s future. She says, “I was not worried about my situation, I was used to living in poverty but I do feel guilty, thinking that whether or not we can raise our children in a better way than how we were raised.”

    She never gave up but continued to work hard and sought knowledge and information on various livelihood options. In the year 2014, she came in contact with a social mobiliser of Shivashakti Community Library and Resource Centre (CLRC), Godar, Nawalparasi through her neighbours. Shivashakti CLRC used to run Practical Answers services to provide livelihood related technical solutions to rural marginal community.

    Kamala got training on commercial vegetable farming and off-season vegetable farming. This training was a boon to change her livelihood. She started vegetable farming in 4 kattha (1 kattha equals to 0.03 hectare) of her land and was able to earn NPR 30,000 (100 NPR equals to 1USD) by selling tomatoes and cauliflowers in 4 months’ time. She used to cultivate rice in 7 katthas of her land which used to submerge during the monsoon season. She participated in an expert interaction conducted by the CLRC and learned about suitable variety selection, seed treatment and modern rice cultivation practice. In the same year, her rice production increased by 120 kg per kattha.

    Gradually, her earning increased. She realised that if she had a cow then she would use the straw and other vegetable left-overs to feed the cow and in return get milk and manure. She consulted with the social mobiliser and got information on different improved cow breeds. She bought two Jersey cows. Now she sells 20 litres milk daily and earns NRS 1000 every day. Her monthly average income has soared to NPR 40,000.
    She says, “It seemed a dream few years ago but now it is a reality, like the popular adage bright day comes after dark day, is really true for me.” She adds, “Now I am optimist about the future. My children go to English medium boarding schools.”

    At present, she is the vice chairperson of Phoolbari Women Farmer Group. The group has been registered at the local government body (Local government prioritises registered farmers’ groups while providing services, subsidies and grants). Her husband supports her in making every decision. While she is away for training and other activities, her mother-in-law, though very old, supports her by looking after her children and cooking food for them. She says, “Now things have changed and without my family support we would not have been at this stage.”

    She concludes, “Knowledge really impacts us but it depends upon how we act accordingly.”

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  • Lessons from Turkana on promoting sanitation in Kenya’s arid areas

    Since 2014, Practical Action has been delivering water, sanitation and hygiene promotion services to communities in northern Kenya through its SWIFT project.

    This is how a typical pit latrine built from local materials looks. Due to poor soil structure many of such latrines soon collapse.

    So far we have worked in 9 locations of Turkana County reaching 160,000 women, men and children directly. The activities that have been undertaken include the drilling of boreholes, Installation of pumps, construction of shallow wells, rehabilitation of 10 dysfunctional shallow wells, upgrading of 6 piped water systems and the Installation 5 high capacity solar pumps.

    Heavy rains and flash floods in Turkana wash away soil and damage structures such as latrines

    As part of the project, the Kenya program was also expected to construct 275 latrines with an expected outcome of reducing the occurrences of open defecation. The locations, mainly on the outskirts of the major town (Lodwar), had over 90% occurrence of open defecation and only a handful of sanitation facilities.

    The project faced a few challenges in 2016 with a number of the latrines collapsing due to the environment and condition of the soil in Turkana – loose soils that cause the collapse and exacerbated by disruptive weather such as heavy rain and flash flooding.

    As the toilets in Turkana were constantly collapsing due to the weak soil structure. We came up with simple culverts to line the outer wall of the latrine

    The collapse of the latrines meant a strategic shift in understanding the context and re-examining the technology needed to ensure that the latrines are sustainable and contextually appropriate for the arid and semi-arid areas of Northern Kenya.

    The Kenya program has recently embarked on another leg of the project to reconstruct the latrines. The new technology will involve lining the pit latrines with culverts and a top concrete slab that would make the latrines resistant to the harsh climate and adaptable to the loose soil. In addition, the use of culverts means the latrines would be appropriate to the lifestyle of the predominantly pastoralist community and can be easily moved /relocated by the community if need be.

    A community member digs the loose sandy soil to install a culvert that acts as the wall of the pit latrine

    Due to the weak soil structure culverts have to be installed to ensure the walls of the latrines do not collapse

    This concrete mould acts as the cover of the culvert and the base of the pit latrine

    Construction has commenced in four locations in Turkana County with an anticipated finish of July. This project provides an opportunity for reflection and demonstrate appropriate sanitation technology for an arid climate and most importantly pastoralist communities who are in constant movement. Practical Action in Eastern Africa hopes that the technology employed and its success will generate learning, inspire others and create opportunities for further programming in waste management and the re-use/ recycle of faecal waste that hasn’t been considered before in the geographic area.

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