Water, sanitation and waste | Blogs

  • Christmas: introducing the concept of giving


    December 12th, 2017

    I love this time of year. I am not ashamed to admit that I am one of those that eagerly awaits the Christmas John Lewis advert with great expectation, in the hope that it lives up to the previous year’s festive treat.

    Gorgeous Goat

    My tree is ready and waiting to be decorated by the first weekend of December and plans are already in place for a Christmas feast with family and friends. Of course, being a mummy, I have unashamedly pushed my Christmas obsession onto my 5 year old daughter, although she never needed very much persuasion to join in with the Christmas spirit. The Christmas story has been requested half a dozen times already at bedtime and it’s still only November.

    We have sat down together to write her Christmas letter to Santa. I spent most of the time trying to discourage her from adding the entire contents of the Argos catalogue to it and I found myself repeating “ but Santa only has a small sleigh and he has to deliver presents to all the children” several times over.

    Introducing the concept of giving and not just receiving, I will be honest, is a slow burner for my little one. But she is coming round to the idea – slowly! She does however love the idea of picking presents for mummy;  which is a huge relief especially as daddy isn’t the best at presents – the minion bubble bath from last year still sits unopened on top of the bathroom cabinet and the singing Orangutan from the year before has found pride of place in the back of the cupboard.

    Giving a charity gift at Christmas time, such as a Practical Present, is something I think that my daughter could get on board with. The novelty of purchasing a quirky gift such as a Gorgeous Goat to help farmers in Bangladesh, or some Snazzy Soap to help children in Kenya get access to clean, safe water, would make her feel very proud and would give her a great story to share with her class mates at share time.

    Snazzy Soap

    I find buying Christmas presents both a joy and a nightmare, especially if I have someone difficult to buy for. But rather than spending money on something that is likely to end up at the back of a cupboard, like my poor old Orangutan (just to clarify – it isn’t real!) why not use the money to buy a Practical Present and make a real difference to the lives of people living in poverty around the world.

    Snazzy Soap is just one of the gifts from our Safe Pair of Hands collection which also includes Tippy Tap and Safe Pair of Hands. If you decide to purchase one of these special presents this Christmas, gifts will be matched £ for £ by The UK Government (up to a total of £5 million). Which means there really is no better time to get into the Christmas spirit, turn up those Christmas songs and buy a present that really does keep on giving, a Practical Present.

     

    No Comments » | Add your comment
  • Trade-offs and choices: realities in urban sanitation projects

    Development charities don’t often talk about the difficulties; about the delays and frustrations. They will tell you of the awful situation people faced, and then “ta dah” here’s our solution. Why? Because we don’t want to apportion blame or appear somehow incompetent. But shouldn’t we try to look at the underlying difficulties: alert others, adjust our programming and try to make the system work better? Isn’t there value in being a little more transparent about the difficulties?

    My visit to 3 small towns in India’s Odisha State brought these issues home to me. We have been working there to improve the sanitation situation through a range of technology options, new social and community engagement structures, new partnerships with pit emptiers, and constructing treatment plants for the safe final disposal of the contents of pit latrines and septic tanks.

    We have faced pressures for swift action on the construction of physical infrastructure. This links to the Swachh Bharat Mission – a flagship program of the national government, aiming to make the nation open defecation free by 2019 (the 150th anniversary of the birth of Mahatma Ghandi) and to eliminate the practice of manual scavenging. Although it is ultimately the responsibility of municipalities to build and maintain water and sanitation infrastructures in the city, NGOs and civil society can support the process, and work in partnership to help achieve the government’s goals. As a result, NGOs like Practical Action have been given tight targets or deadlines to deliver on their activities. We have been asked to complete all infrastructures within a year. At the same time, the approvals process continues to be slow.

    In two of the towns, the focus of our attention has been on the successful completion of some ground-breaking pieces of infrastructure (in particular faecal sludge treatment plants which will be among the first in the state). If they can be shown to work successfully, they could be a trigger for others to follow, and for the municipalities themselves (who in this case see themselves as integral partners in the exercise) to champion the work. Dealing effectively and safely with faecal sludge is a fast-emerging issue which will only become a higher priority as the Swachh Bharat Mission moves fast on the construction of new toilets.

    Faecal sludge treatment plant under construction in Dhenkanal

    As a result, it has been an incredibly busy and complex time for the team of Practical Action and our local partner organisations. Some of the barriers they have had to overcome have included;

    • The need for approvals for construction, both to secure land and then for designs to be approved. For different types of infrastructure this has involved a whole range of different agencies at different levels, and can be extremely complex and time-consuming.
    • The lack of structure and clear plans at the municipal level for city-wide sanitation or waste management have meant decisions need to be taken from first principles each time.
    • Frequent changes of officials are common, but in some cases key municipal staff have changed 5 or 6 times over 12-18 months. A huge amount of time has to be invested in re-starting these relationships and ensuring understanding and commitments
    • Political pressures towards rapid completion of infrastructure, has squeezed the time available for adequate planning and engagement of all stakeholders in agreeing roles and responsibilities for system operation
    • The need for close interaction with government schemes which shape the available solutions, and which technologies are acceptable. For example, local rules apply to the quality of toilets that can be constructed, what subsidies are available under Swachh Bharat and how the up-front costs can be financed.

    With the Chairperson and Chief Officer, Dhenkanal

    What we have learned is that there are trade-offs and difficult choices to be made. For example:

    • To make any progress at all, especially in the early days of a relationship with a municipality, infrastructure may need to be delivered quickly, squeezing the time available for ideal amounts of planning and engagement with all stakeholders
    • Pressures of time, local regulations and common practices, used to try to ensure good quality construction can counter intentions to use labourers from the local community, or community engagement in other aspects of construction (such as procurement, quality checking, or keeping track of materials)
    • Pressures to start with things that are more within our own control, and which look impressive, ahead of less visible things that might in fact make the greatest difference to slum dwellers. Working on these may have to wait a little until we have built up trust.

    Taking an optimistic view, the pressure to complete construction, for example of the faecal sludge treatment plants, early on in the project (after one year of a two year project for example), does at least give us more time to work on getting the systems right and to monitor operation. In fact, this will ideally require longer than the year we have left to ensure all the hiccups in operation are addressed and resolved. The biggest challenges in the sanitation sector are all about sustained use, operation and maintenance. Community structures are in place to ensure their voices are heard in decision-making, but the detail of O&M still needs to be worked out.

    Community discussion on sanitation

    The World Urban Campaign’s vision is for the #cityweneed. A vision in which all residents have the opportunity for safe, healthy, and productive lives. Building on this, the New Urban Agenda endorsed by the UN General Assembly at the Habitat III conference in Quito in 2016 commits governments to urban development which ‘leaves no-one behind… providing equal access for all to physical and social infrastructure and basic services”. It promotes approaches which are “participatory, promote civic engagement, and engender a sense of belonging and ownership among all their inhabitants”.

    New Urban Agenda

    Achieving this as the direction for the achievement of SDG11 and in fact of all the SDGS in cities, will require pioneers, leadership and expertise. Demonstration of what is possible will help turn the tide on rampant inequalities and entrenched power bases. At the same time, the path can be full of obstacles both practical and political.

    • We need to learn, share and influence others to overcome these to achieve results in the best interests of the poorest residents.
    • We need to build trust in new ways of doing things so we can work in ways closer to the vision of the New Urban Agenda.

    There is a need for trust-building everywhere and increased capacity. Peer learning can be a powerful means of developing that, and it is something we hope to be able to foster more of over time in our programme in Odisha: between municipalities, between slum dwellers, between groups of informal workers.

    At Practical Action we will continue to learn and share our experiences, including the challenges. Watch this space!

    1 Comment » | Add your comment
  • Our hands, our future


    November 24th, 2017

    Since 2008, Global Handwashing Day has been celebrated annually, worldwide on 15 October.  It presents an opportunity to campaign, motivate and mobilize people around the world to improve their handwashing habits by raising awareness about the benefits of handwashing with soap.

    This year Practical Action’s UKAid funded Aqua4East project, in collaboration with Kassala Women Association Network, (KWDAN) celebrated the day with the local community of Darasta, a village with a population of 7850 which lies 30 km north of Kassala. The theme was ‘Our health is in our hands.’

    Both Practical Action and KWDAN are active in the area, upgrading the water infrastructure, conducting sanitation activities with school clubs, and health promoters.  We are currently constructing two public latrines, and training local people in low tech block making. These activities aim at improving hygiene and changing behaviour.

    The Darasta community gathered at the local school for a full day program of speeches, music and drama.  KWDAN distributed hand washing equipment, soap bars, t-shirts, and posters. Certificates of appreciation were also awarded to a number of key community members and to organizations working with the community.

    Practical Action’s Water for East project manager Mr Musa Ibrahim said:

    Global Handwashing Day is an annual advocacy day dedicated to increasing awareness and understanding about the importance of hand washing with soap as an easy, effective, and affordable way to prevent diseases and save lives”

    KWDAN Director Ms Hanan Zayed said:

    “In our state few use soap to wash their hands because soap and water for handwashing might be less accessible; we need to wash our hands with soap and water to dramatically cut the number of young children who get sick. Hand washing with soap could prevent about 1 out of every 10 episodes of diarrhoeal illnesses and almost 1 out of 6 episodes of respiratory infection, this can be simple and inexpensive.”

    The event was recorded and broadcast on Kassala State television.

    No Comments » | Add your comment
  • Systematic engagement of stakeholders can improve the sanitation situations in Dhenkanal Municipality


    November 20th, 2017

    Written by Ganesh Parida, Senior Project Officer, Project Nirmal

    Dhenkanal Municipality, is a small town in the state of Odisha, India. Witha a total area of 30.92 Sq. km and it spreads over 23 municipal Wards. As per the 2011 Census, the total population of the town is 67,414, out of which 34,864 males and 32,550 females. About 11,105 Scheduled Caste and 4095 Scheduled Tribe population live in the town. The town is having 14908 households. There are 17 notified slums in the city. Dhenkanal city, the district headquarters has a cluster of temples, archaeological remains, and a medieval fort. The majority of this district is covered with dense forest and a long range of hills, which are home to elephants and tigers.

    If we will analyse the sanitation aspects of the city, about 68% of the non-slum HHs and about 16% of slum HHs in the town have access to toilets and the remaining 32% non-slum & 84% slum HHs are practicing open defecation in the open field, river bank, alongside ponds, drains or roadside.
    People without access to individual toilets rely either on public toilets or resort to open defecation. There are public toilets, but toilets are ill-maintained, local people are not using regularly due to a deficiency in proper O&M from the service provider.

    The sanitation facilities in schools and other institutions are also inadequacies and maintenances of these facilities are always questionable. There is no sewerage system in Dhenkanal Municipality. As a result majority of sewage flows through open drain. There are no treatment systems for faecal sludge in Dhenkanal Municipality at present. Disposal of septage is causing serious problems in the Municipality. The collected sludge is disposed of in low lands, open fields, water bodies and drains. There are manual scavengers in the city working informally without any proper personal protection equipment like gloves, eye protection wear, boots and protective clothes.

    About 20 MT of solid waste is currently being generated per day in the city. The major source of solid waste generation in the city is street sweeping followed by households, vegetable market, fruit market, hotels, restaurants, institutions, hospital, fish and meat shops etc. There is a designated dumping yard in Ward No-8 for the disposal of solid waste but not for the treatment.

    Again if we will see the sanitation service delivery system in the city, the Municipality has many challenges to handle the above-said issues due to inadequate infrastructures and facilities.
    With this background, Project Nirmal has been associated with the Municipality since 2015 to improve the sanitation service delivery systems focusing on faecal sludge management. The overall vision is the demonstration of sustainable sanitation service delivery for small towns leading to increased coverage of households and institutions through enabling institutional and financial arrangements and increased private sector participation.

    To make the program effective and sustainable, engagement of the key stakeholders are highly essential starting from community to state level. Different forums have been constituted at the State, district, city and the community levels to ensure the participation of various stakeholders and their contribution towards the implementation of the project.

    Slum Sanitation Committee (SSC) has been set up in each slum to facilitate community mobilization, community monitoring of the sanitation activities, demand generation and preparation of planning at the slum and Ward level. 18 Slum Sanitation Committees are facilitating the community processes at slum level.

    Ward Sanitation Committee (WSC) has been formed under the chairmanship of the Ward Councilor to facilitate in the identification of sanitation issues, demand generation, monitor sanitation service delivery and planning processes at the ward level. 23 Ward Sanitation Committees are actively involved in marginalizing the sanitation-related issues at ward level.
    City Sanitation Task Force (CSTF) under the Chairmanship of the Chairperson of the Municipality has been formed to monitor and extend hands-on support in terms of awareness generation, ensure City Sanitation and service delivery system.

    District Coordination Committee (DCC) under the chairmanship of the Collector and District Magistrate of Dhenkanal Municipality has been formed to oversee, review, monitor and guide the project implementation at the district level.

    Project Steering Committee (PSC) as an apex body of the project has been constituted at the state level under the chairmanship of the Commissioner-cum-Secretary to Government, Housing and Urban Development Department, Government of Odisha, to advise, oversee, monitor, review and guide the implementation of Project Nirmal in Dhenkanal Municipalities.

    The major initiative is to establish a Faecal Sludge Treatment Plant (FSTP) to address the issue of treating the liquid waste from the toilet pits. The CSTF and DCC have proactively made it possible to allow the required size of land for the construction of the FSTP and necessary supports extended to the Project for early execution of the construction activity. The construction of the FSTP is going on at Dhenkanal Municipality. It is proposed to complete it by end of this year and commissioned in the beginning of next year which would address the safe disposal of liquid waste from the toilet pits. Hope, this would improve the sanitation profile of the city.

    No Comments » | Add your comment
  • Championing sanitation in Kisumu

    On the outskirts of Kenya’s third largest city, Kisumu are rusty shacks that dot the landscape. This is Nyalenda settlement, an informal dwelling of at least 60,000 residents (as per the 2009 national population census). Nyalenda is the second largest informal settlement in Kisumu, after Manyatta, and is situated to the south of the Central Business District (CBD). Nyalenda consists of two separate settlements, Nyalenda A and B. Nyalenda A is subdivided into four units (Dago, Kanyakwar, Central and Western A), while Nyalenda B features five smaller units (Got Owak, Kilo, Nanga, Dunga and Western).

    An estimated 60 percent of Kisumu’s population lives in informal settlements and this population is rapidly expanding with the ever increasing rural urban migration, where rural communities move to the towns and cities in search of jobs and better livelihoods. Many households in the city’s informal settlements do not have adequate access to such basic services as water and sanitation, with as many as 100 people sharing a single toilet.

    It is this great need of Kisumu’s over 200,000 residents that prompted Practical Action to embark on water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) initiatives within the city’s informal settlements. For over a decade, Practical Action has been working to improve the living conditions of urban poor residents through increased access to basic services such as adequate water and sanitation facilities, functional storm water, effluent drainage and solid waste management.

    A walk through Nyalenda provides a snapshot of what the residents here have to contend with. The congested tin roofed houses, large garbage heaps, and streams of sewage, are commonplace. One has to watch where they step as they walk through the villages as open defecation and ‘flying toilets’—the phenomena whereby residents relieve themselves in polythene bags, and then throw the bags outside on to streets, roofs and alleyways, is prevalent.

    Practical Action has been assisting the residents of Nyalenda by providing piped water with the support of Kisumu Water and Sewerage Company (KIWASCO) as well as improving the level of sanitation through construction of toilets and pit latrines.

    As a way of ensuring the residents fully participate in the overall improvement of the informal settlement they live in, Practical Action and its partner Kisumu Urban Apostolate Programmes (KUAP) in 2008 formed the Nyalenda A Neighbourhood Association that covers the villages of Dago, Kanyakwar, Central and Western A.

    Christopher Ogla at the door of an improved latrine in Nyalenda, Kisumu

    More significantly, Practical Action piloted Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) in this settlement. CLTS is an innovative and widely utilized methodology for mobilizing communities to completely eliminate open defecation (OD). Communities are facilitated to conduct their own appraisal and analysis of open defecation (OD) and take their own action to become ODF (open defecation free). One of the CLTS successes has been Dago village within Nyalenda A. This village’s latrine coverage stood at 54% nine months ago, but once Practical Action and KUAP with the help of the neighbourhood association as well as the community health volunteers (CHVs) and public health officers (PHOs) stepped in and introduced the CLTS concept, Dago is now well on its way to becoming ODF as latrine coverage currently stands at 99%.

    This modest success of achieving ODF status for one of the villages in Kisumu’s informal settlements demonstrates that if concerted efforts are put in place to improve sanitation through proper fecal disposal and proper hygiene, the spread of such waterborne diseases as diarrhea and cholera, particularly among children will be a thing of the past, and Kisumu can embark on a journey to see it free from open defecation which would herald a massive improvement of the health of its residents.

    No Comments » | Add your comment
  • Mesquite clearance in Darassa – from dream to reality


    July 25th, 2017

    Ahmed Mohammed Tahir Betay, President of Kassala state Legislative Council and former commissioner of Telkuk, admired the Darassa catchment integrated water resource action plan, saying that ‘to demonstrate the whole is better than only a part’.

    Mesquite clearance in DarassaHe decided to help implement this action plan by sharing his knowledge of cleaning mesquite from Telkuk town when he was commissioner there. This resulted in increased water supply in hand dug wells during the dry season.  So he will have support for this idea in Darassa, along with the scientific evidence and feasibility studies for the subsurface dam and the rehabilitation of Girgir Dam.

    The action plan aims to increase groundwater recharging and promote water facilities in Darassa. This village, which has a small reservoir and nine hand pumps, suffers from chronic water shortages during dry season .

    In community gathering in the village level Ahamed Mohamed Tahir launched the idea of removing mesquite, an invasive tree which affects both water availability and agricultural production.

    Increased water in wellsAt the gathering  during his visit to the subsurface dam construction in Darassa he said:

    “I realize that the subsurface dam is a new scientific innovation for this area and I hope it will be successful.  But besides that we will clear the mesquite which will be a bonus.  I declare to you all that Darassa catchment will be clear from mesquite and I am here to launch it. My contribution is the excavator machine and the community will cover the fuel, lubricant and operational and driving costs. We will lead the process from here to other places Practical Action working in Girgir dam, Misud and elsewhere. ’’

    This declaration puts Practical Action Sudan and the community on the verge of great hope.  There are challenges  and accountability issues, so the big question is whether this tremendous opportunity can be implemented well.  It is hope that, with this leadership from the government all partners will share in supporting this enterprise.

     

     

    1 Comment » | Add your comment
  • Toilet trouble in the slums of Odisha


    July 21st, 2017

    Last week I travelled to Choudwar in the state of Odisha, India to visit a project being funded by H&M Foundation.  We took along with us two influential fashion and beauty vloggers Dress Like a Mum and Ms Rosie Bea to show them the realities of a life without adequate sanitation.

    The women and children that we met in the community are forced to relieve themselves in an open field, exposed to prying eyes.  They risk sexual assault as well as snake bites and contracting malaria from mosquitoes. If this wasn’t bad enough, women who are on their periods have absolutely no privacy.

    But all that is about to change. With funding from the H&M Foundation, we will be building toilets, a faecal sludge treatment plant and rainwater harvesting systems to change the lives of the women and children that we met (and the men too!).

    I spoke to a few people today about my recent trip to India (including a woman who stopped me in the street to say she enjoyed my photos (thank you again) It was such an honour to be invited to work with @practical_action & @hmfoundation – to actually see direct results and to meet the wonderful people who will benefit from the life changing projects they are working on. The things I saw, people I meet and places we visited will stay with me for life, at times I felt like I was inside a TV program – it was unreal, humbling and inspiring. Thanks for all your kind words, support and for following my trip – videos to follow next week x And big thanks to @practical_action for all that you do for the world ❤️ #dresslikeamuminindia #india #practicalactionindia #practicalaction #hm #hmfoundation

    A post shared by Zoë de Pass (@dresslikeamum) on

    It was fantastic to open Zoe and Rosie’s eyes to these issues, to help them understand the problems that people are facing and how we are going to work together to fix them.

    We were given such a warm welcome, particularly when we arrived laden with make-up for the teenagers in the community. We lost count of the number of fingernails that were painted and blue eye shadow that was applied!

    Working with ‘social influencers’ like Zoe and Rosie is a new thing for us but is really helping us to reach new audiences with our work. We’ll be back in November once the toilets are under construction – watch this space!

    Watch Rosie’s video about the visit

    No Comments » | Add your comment
  • Imagine bringing up your toddler here?

    I recently visited Kisumu, Kenya, where Practical Action is working with two local partner organisations (KUAP and Umande Trust) in a five-year project to transform the sanitation situation for 64,200 residents of the city’s informal settlements.

    Drains polluted with waste and human faeces, Obunga, Kisumu (c) Practical Action, Patrick Meinhardt

    We visited families to understand the extreme challenges faced by parents and carers looking after children under 5 years. As a Mum of two, the youngest of whom turns 6 next month, I could easily make comparisons. There are so many different stages babies, toddlers and children go through in those years, and so many challenges to keeping them healthy and happy. This area has been acknowledged as a blind spot within the already blind spot of understanding how to make progress on sanitation.

    If my children catch one of those nasty ‘winter vomiting bugs’ I know I’m in for a hard time. All that extra washing and cleaning up, and trying to bleach every surface I might have inadvertently contaminated.

    Now imagine dealing with 10 month-old twins with diarrhoea and vomiting with cloth nappies which have to be washed by hand, and where you can’t afford expensive cleaning products. No wonder the whole family got sick.

    Family from Obunga, Kisumu, with their older boy and one of their 10 month old twins (c) Practical Action, Patrick Meinhardt

    Children are generally taken out of nappies far earlier in developing countries than in the UK – and it seems that can mean more accidents, that can be hard to clean up where floors are not just mud or concrete and not easily wiped.

    And when children are old enough to manage their own toileting, the pit latrines adults use are not places for children. They are often filthy with excrement on various surfaces, and not designed to be used with little legs. Parents would rather put down old newspapers for children, or get them to use a potty, with the contents disposed in the toilet. But then again, sometimes children have to be left while the parent is at work in which case they are more inclined to just use an open space outside.

    Latrines are often generally avoided by young children (c) Practical Action, Patrick Meinhardt

    This is not uncommon. In a global study in countries with poor sanitation, UNICEF found that over 50 percent of households with children under age three reported that the faeces of their children were unsafely disposed of. Even among households with improved toilets or latrines, some unsafe child faeces disposal behavior was reported by caregivers.

    Every time these children and carers want to wash their hands they need to get the basin, soap and container of water out separately. It’s enough of a struggle to remind my children to always wash their hands and that’s when the basin is right there with soap on hand.

    Handwashing (c) Practical Action, Patrick Meinhardt

    Practical Action is working to transform the situation – using a combination of school-led and community-led total sanitation, which uses visual demonstrations to explain how an environment polluted with so much faeces is damaging everyone’s health. Encouraging handwashing and making it easier is also an important focus. We’ve been running the programme for a little over a year with good results so far, and action will be ramping up in the coming year. With the support of Public Health Officers and a cadre of amazingly motivated ‘natural leaders’ from the community we think the collective behaviour change needed will be ignited.

    As one Public Health Officer told me: “it’s one thing to force people to build toilets, but that’s not the answer. What matters is that they are used by everyone all the time.” And that’s the change we’re aiming for: a shit-free environment and a healthy future for Kisumu’s children.

    No Comments » | Add your comment
  • Lessons from Turkana on promoting sanitation in Kenya’s arid areas

    Since 2014, Practical Action has been delivering water, sanitation and hygiene promotion services to communities in northern Kenya through its SWIFT project.

    This is how a typical pit latrine built from local materials looks. Due to poor soil structure many of such latrines soon collapse.

    So far we have worked in 9 locations of Turkana County reaching 160,000 women, men and children directly. The activities that have been undertaken include the drilling of boreholes, Installation of pumps, construction of shallow wells, rehabilitation of 10 dysfunctional shallow wells, upgrading of 6 piped water systems and the Installation 5 high capacity solar pumps.

    Heavy rains and flash floods in Turkana wash away soil and damage structures such as latrines

    As part of the project, the Kenya program was also expected to construct 275 latrines with an expected outcome of reducing the occurrences of open defecation. The locations, mainly on the outskirts of the major town (Lodwar), had over 90% occurrence of open defecation and only a handful of sanitation facilities.

    The project faced a few challenges in 2016 with a number of the latrines collapsing due to the environment and condition of the soil in Turkana – loose soils that cause the collapse and exacerbated by disruptive weather such as heavy rain and flash flooding.

    As the toilets in Turkana were constantly collapsing due to the weak soil structure. We came up with simple culverts to line the outer wall of the latrine

    The collapse of the latrines meant a strategic shift in understanding the context and re-examining the technology needed to ensure that the latrines are sustainable and contextually appropriate for the arid and semi-arid areas of Northern Kenya.

    The Kenya program has recently embarked on another leg of the project to reconstruct the latrines. The new technology will involve lining the pit latrines with culverts and a top concrete slab that would make the latrines resistant to the harsh climate and adaptable to the loose soil. In addition, the use of culverts means the latrines would be appropriate to the lifestyle of the predominantly pastoralist community and can be easily moved /relocated by the community if need be.

    A community member digs the loose sandy soil to install a culvert that acts as the wall of the pit latrine

    Due to the weak soil structure culverts have to be installed to ensure the walls of the latrines do not collapse

    This concrete mould acts as the cover of the culvert and the base of the pit latrine

    Construction has commenced in four locations in Turkana County with an anticipated finish of July. This project provides an opportunity for reflection and demonstrate appropriate sanitation technology for an arid climate and most importantly pastoralist communities who are in constant movement. Practical Action in Eastern Africa hopes that the technology employed and its success will generate learning, inspire others and create opportunities for further programming in waste management and the re-use/ recycle of faecal waste that hasn’t been considered before in the geographic area.

    No Comments » | Add your comment
  • CLTS making an impact on sanitation in Kisumu

    Over the last year or so, Practical Action and our partner organisations KUAP and Umande Trust, have been rolling out a programme of urban-adapted CLTS (community-led total sanitation) in informal settlements in Kisumu. The work is part of a five-year project supported by Comic Relief.

    Last week I visited and was treated to a demonstration of some of the team’s favourite tools, as they described both what works best, and some of the challenges of taking these tools designed for rural contexts, into urban environments.

    Open Defecation hotspot in Kisumu (c) Practical Action, Patrick Meinhardt

    Differences in context

    Two years ago, I visited similar work in Nakuru, and summarised 11 differences between urban and rural CLTS. Many of these also apply in Kisumu. The local team themselves identified these features of urban areas as the most important in making collective triggering and behaviour change more challenging:

    • Large areas with large populations, with the need to break this down into smaller chunks to reach more people
    • Large numbers of tenants, with the need to persuade landlords to invest in better sanitation
    • The opportunity to reach people through the area’s schools, with children taking messages home from ‘health clubs’
    • A diverse, shifting, population where attempting to persuade your neighbour to change their ways may be seen as disrespectful
    • Open Defecation does not only mean hotspots, but can also mean polluted latrines, leaking and ‘hanging’ toilets open to the drains, flying toilets, open dump sites with waste such as sanitary towels and nappies, burst sewer lines, and the work of pit emptiers where the contents of a pit is emptied directly onto open ground.

    We have mapped all these sources of open defecation through transect walks using GIS technology and combined all the information to generate open defecation ‘heat’ maps. The aim of a CLTS approach is to help communities to eliminate all of these.

    Open Defecation Hotspot Analysis for Obunga low income settlement, Kisumu

    Favourite triggering tools

    In CLTS, it is often the ‘triggering’ process that is the most dramatic. This is the moment when, through demonstrations and visual tools, community members realise the drastic environmental situation they find themselves in, where they are, in all likelihood, eating each other’s poo.

    Public Health Officers trained by Practical Action have been supporting the process through their cadre of community health volunteers. At the same time, natural leaders have emerged from initial triggering events. These passionate and committed people have done the bulk of the triggering events so far. Many of the tools they use are familiar to CLTS practitioners such as:

    • Mapping of landmarks, houses and open defecation hotspots
    • Transect walks to open defecation hotspots and broken latrines
    • Bread and faeces side by side to watch the flies move from one to another
    • Clean water which is then polluted by faeces on a stick, and people no longer want to drink it
    • Calculations of the volume of faeces present in the community
    • Health cost calculations of the amounts spent on treating diseases caused by an environment polluted with poo

    Among the most impactful of these was reported to be the health cost calculation because in urban areas, people are acutely aware of the cost of everything.

    CLTS triggering in action, Nyalenda, Kisumu (c) Practical Action, Patrick Meinhardt

    In the area of Nyalenda called ‘Dago’ where we met the team, there has been a dramatic improvement. A major search had to be mounted to find any faeces with which to demonstrate! It was reported that almost all the plot-owners had now built toilets. But this area was more spread-out with enough space for digging simple pit latrines and fewer tenants. The process will likely be slower and need to involve many more stakeholders and different technology choices in more densely populated areas where soils either collapse too easily, are too rocky, or where the water table is high.

    We are learning from our recently completed work in Nakuru, and as the process moves forward we will share more highlights. The Public Health Department are keen to learn from others and celebrate the first communities becoming ODF. That may require some local adaptations of the verification protocol relax the requirements for hand washing facilities at the toilets, which is what has blocked settlements in Nakuru from achieving this status.

    As the process moves forward, we’ll share more updates and insights via our blog.

    Together with Plan International and the CLTS Knowledge Hub at IDS, Sussex University, we are compiling experiences of urban CLTS to create a new guide that will be launched later this year. This builds on the ‘Addis Agreement‘ which shares experiences of urban CLTS published in 2016.

    No Comments » | Add your comment