Imagine if we had forecast information that a flood disaster was likely to strike a particular location and we could anticipate the rain coming but were unable to do anything in that small window of opportunity. It would make sense if we were able to take early action and help vulnerable communities prepare before a disaster event based upon the available forecast information. Forecast based Financing (FbF) is a niche concept in the humanitarian sector that allows us to take actions based upon the best science ahead of time when it is not too late to respond.
FbF combines disaster management and climate research where scientific weather forecasts are used to anticipate possible impacts in high risk areas and predefined plans automatically mobilizes resources before a disaster event.
Current preparedness plans are often normative and based upon the average level of risks though there is a huge potential to scale up humanitarian actions when science indicates the increased level of risks regarding impending hazards. So far the policy directives have increasingly spurred investment in improving preparedness, enhancing existing early warning systems and response initiatives. But it has clearly overlooked much needed linkages between early warning and early actions for improved preparedness and response.
FbF triggers early action based on forecasts, bridging the gaps between preparedness, disaster risk reduction and emergency response. Likewise, FbF also supports the Sendai Framework’s emphasis on the paradigm shift towards risk management and mobilizing investments to avoid new risks.
Practical Action Consulting (PAC) is currently providing Technical Assistance (TA) to the World Food Programme (WFP) Nepal in reviewing climate risks and flood early warning systems of Dang, Banke, Bardiya, Surkhet, Kailali and Kanchanpur districts in Western Nepal. The engagement will seek to develop dynamic Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) where thresholds triggers flood preparedness actions in the aforementioned districts.
With contributions from Madhab Uprety – DRR Consultant at PACNo Comments » | Add your comment
The Karnali is a trans-boundary river that originates from the Himalayas and flows along the steep and hilly terrain of West Nepal. The Karnali drains into the Terai plains from a narrow gorge at Chisapani where the river splits into the Geruwa and Karnali rivers, creating an inland delta before converging as the Ghagra in India (Zurich 2015). The river carries snow fed flows and has significant discharge even during the dry seasons. Based upon historical discharge records, 80% of the total flow occurs during the monsoon season with maximum flow events mostly occurring during the months of June through September (Dixit, 2009).
The geomorphological origins of the Karnali bifurcation along with river shifting is not well understood, which is probably dictated by tectonics and attributed to the process of mountain building in the Himalayas (Sinha et al, 2014). Despite being one of the largest rivers of Nepal, there exists dearth of research on river morphology of the Karnali mega-fan (Zurich, 2015), and even less is known regarding the sediment dynamics and its impact on flooding at a basin scale. However, what is known is that the Karnali River floods the Terai plains every few years, and the frequency has increased in the past decade with major floods occurring in 2008, 2009, 2013 and 2014.
Understanding the catchment response for rivers in Nepal is highly complex owing to the dynamic geomorphology upstream coupled with topographic and geological constraints (Nepal et al. 2014). Moreover, it is challenging to comprehend the catchment response during high intensity and short duration precipitation events that trigger flash floods downstream (Shrestha et al, 2008). Floods are also dependent upon river morpho-dynamics and local slope conditions and generally follow non-linear pathways (Sinha et al, 2014).
It is critical to understand non-linear pathways to flooding in large river basins such as Karnali, where myriad of engineering structures such irrigation canals and hydropower plants are currently being planned to divert water flows. With the changing climate, magnitude and frequency of floods are expected to increase in the near future (NCVST, 2009), altering the dynamics and carrying capacity of the rivers that would most likely impact the future flood conditions, which cannot be discounted for the Karnali River.
Note: This post first appeared in the Flood Resilience Portal
- Dixit, A. (2009). Kosi embankment breach in Nepal: Need for a paradigm shift in responding to floods. Economic and Political Weekly, 70-78.
- Gautam, D. K., & Dulal, K. (2013). Determination of threshold runoff for flood early warning in Nepalese Rivers. IDRiM Journal, 3(1), 126-136.
- Nepal, S., Flügel, W. A., & Shrestha, A. B. (2014). Upstream-downstream linkages of hydrological processes in the Himalayan region. Ecological Processes, 3(1), 1-16.
- NCVST. (2009). Vulnerability through the Eyes of Vulnerable: Climate Change Induced Uncertainties and Nepal’s Development Predicaments. Kathmandu: Institute of Social and Environmental Transition-Nepal (ISET-N), Nepal Climate Vulnerability Study Team (NCVST).
- Shrestha, A. B., Shah, S. H., & Karim, R. (2008). Resource manual on flash flood risk management. Internat. Centre for Integrated Mountain Development, ICIMOD. http://lib.icimod.org/record/7891.
- Sinha, R.; Kale, V.S.;Chakraborty, T. (2014), Tropical rivers of south and southeast Asia: Landscape evolution, morpho-dynamics and hazards, Geomorphology 227, 1–4.
- Zurich Insurance (2015). Risk Nexus: Urgent case for recovery: what we can learn from the August 2014 Karnali River floods in Nepal.
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Two weeks ago I attended the World Humanitarian Summit in Istanbul and thought I would share a few thoughts.
Firstly, the positive message! The side-event on the Moving Energy Initiative with the Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves went very well: The next phase of funding was agreed and additional funding for the energy in emergencies sector was announced. The event was well attended and Practical Action made connections with important partners for us in the energy space.
Baroness Verma from DFID and Susan Myers from the UN Foundation spoke at the event, reinforcing international commitments to delivering sustainable energy for all in conflict and disaster situations. Participants pledged to investigate the linkages between gender-based violence and energy access, as well as work with humanitarian agencies to innovate with technology and approaches to increase access to household cooking energy and renewable energy in refugee camps.
On a less positive note, the summit as a whole was, as expected, a demonstration of political wrangling. The high-level commitment emerging is the Grand Bargain, which commits to a target of 25% of humanitarian funding going to local NGOs by 2020. This includes greater use of cash transfers and global south implementation partners. But will this work in practice? Will it change the way major donors fund and the way the UN bodies implement? The feeling at the summit was no. MSF were the strongest voice in this arena, refusing to even attend the summit, but many other NGOs and groups at the conference were voicing similar concerns.
The challenge we face as a development organisation when working with the humanitarian community is – does the existing system work for the poorest and most vulnerable people? Many in the sector think it does not, and that we have a failing system in need of radical reform. Many field workers at the summit felt we should leave the UN and the international summit process and start doing things differently, independently, and directly. Were Practical Action to consider engaging further in the humanitarian sector, we need to think carefully where our engagement should focus.1 Comment » | Add your comment
co-author Francis Muchiri
Sustainable development will increasingly be judged on emerging metrics such as climate compatibility and gender-sensitive approaches.
Climate change is a collective challenge facing the world today, and any effective solutions to slow down or mitigate its effects will need collaboration at all levels. It continues to manifest itself through natural shocks that are increasing in intensity and frequency: raging floods, extended and unpredictable droughts, compromised eco-systems and so on. The effects of climate change have a direct bearing on industry, industrialisation, food security, human migration trends, production systems, availability of water, and overall poverty levels, with the greatest negative impacts being felt by the most vulnerable groups.
Because of the diffuse nature of its effects, conversations around climate-compatible development should take into account the diversity of efforts required: from the broader policy level, right down to the communal level, that will lead to greater impact.
Women in both rural and urban areas face barriers (social, economic and political) that limit their ability to cope with the impacts of climate change. However, there is a danger in singling them out as passive victims or recipients to the benefits of adaptation or mitigation activities. Any collective efforts need to engage women alongside men and any other groups, as potential actors or agents for change. Information on the effectiveness of gender-sensitive approaches has not been quantified and analysed to produce clear evidence on the need for engendered approaches in climate compatible development. The lack of segregated data makes it difficult to demonstrate the link between gender, adaption and mitigation activities. Indeed, the impacts of climate change are experienced differently according to age, sex, location, and economic activity. It further has a composite effect on education, employment and the health sector, among others. We need to ask ourselves whether ongoing interventions incorporate strategies that ensure equal participation of both women and men.
This presents a unique opportunity; to provide the required benchmarks on the effectiveness of gender-sensitive climate compatible development to create frameworks for future planning, investment and resourcing. Successful implementation of these interventions will require a demonstration of equity, where everyone benefits from, and is able to contribute to these measures regardless of their social status, locations, gender, occupation and so on.
Evidence produced from Practical Action’s program implementation over the past 50 years has shown that community initiatives and interventions will neither be effective nor sustainable unless there is equitable buy-in and contribution from both men and women. Based on complete projects that integrated gender-sensitive approaches, there exist prospects to demonstrate how and to what extent engagement of both women and men in adaptation and mitigation efforts has contributed to the achievement of specific objectives, while improving their livelihoods.
Susan Asiko lives in Kibera. She found herself in an unfortunate position when her only source of livelihood as a domestic worker came to an abrupt halt. After months of living from hand to mouth, and many times sleeping on an empty stomach, a neighbour introduced Susan to the briquette making business. With minimal education, Practical Action provided both business and technology support that has empowered her to manage her enterprise and make business decisions effectively. From an initial investment of Kshs. 200, she has been able to grow her business, producing an environmentally-friendly fuel for household use, and see her children through school. Her enterprise is meeting a number of varied goals: it is making use of available waste material, reducing reliance on ineffective biomass at the household level within her locale, and limiting the pollution generated from unclean fuels here. It might seem like a drop in the ocean, but because she was able to access relevant training, she can now make her individual contribution towards mitigating against the effects of climate change. How much more can be done to build an army of Susans?
Practical Action through its consulting arm, Practical Action Consulting, is collaborating with the Institute of Development Studies (IDS) across three regions (Latin America, Eastern Africa and Southern Asia) to manage Climate and Development Knowledge Network (CDKN)’s learning study dubbed “Gender Equality and Climate Compatible Development: Drivers and challenges to people’s empowerment”.
The study will manage the production and dissemination of high quality evidence on gender-sensitive approaches to Climate Compatible Development (CCD) including how and to what extent they can contribute to increasing women’s ability to engage in adaptation and mitigation efforts in ways that affect the long-term impacts. The findings from the three sub-national studies will be used to substantiate the benefits of gender equality within the development and adoption of policy decisions and the subsequent design and implementation of appropriate development programmes in the case study countries and beyond.
The one-year study will look at the adoption and meaning of ‘gender-sensitive’ approaches to Climate Compatible Development in different urban contexts, and also build understanding of the roles both men and women play in climate change related initiatives. It will also explore the socio-economic, political and cultural factors and conditions which either support or constrain gender responsive policies; strategies, approaches and actions; and the existing barriers in effective participation of women in decision making for activities around disaster risk reduction, post-disaster recovery, adaptation and mitigation in varied settings.
In Kenya the CDKN Project will evaluate, through a gendered lens to CCD, the five-year Comic Relief Funded project titled ”People’s Plans in to Practice: Building Productive and Liveable Settlements with slum dwellers in Kisumu and Kitale” with part of its strategic focus on ‘People Living in Slums’. The project was implemented jointly by three partners; Practical Action, Kisumu Urban Apostolate Programme (KUAP) and Shelter Forum in collaboration with the defunct Municipal Councils of Kisumu and Kitale, commencing in 2008 and closing in December 2013.
The overall aim of the project was to improve the well-being, productivity and living conditions of poor people living in informal settlements in Kenya and the East African region, 80% of who were women and children. It aimed at ensuring their inclusion in the planning and development processes of the Local Authorities; and by improving access to clean water, better sanitation, waste management, drainage, supporting secure land tenure and affordable housing.
The CDKN study will document efforts made by development agencies to integrate gender into climate compatible development whilst identifying gaps that exist both in programming and policy at national and county levels. This will inform subsequent design and implementation of appropriate urban development strategies in cities and towns experiencing similar challenges.No Comments » | Add your comment
As part of Zurich’s flood resilience program, the post event review capability (PERC) provides research and independent reviews of large flood events. It seeks to answer questions related to aspects of flood resilience, flood risk management and catastrophe intervention. It looks at what has worked well (identifying best practices) and opportunities for further improvements.
The Karnali region in Nepal experienced major flooding in August 2014, causing 222 deaths and severely affecting more than 120,000 people. The challenge now is to recover, build resilience and to prevent similar damages and loss during future disasters.
‘Urgent Case for Recovery: What we can learn from the August 2014 Karnali River Floods in Nepal‘ is a post event review evaluating flood events, impacts, response and recovery to understand what happened, what could have been done differently, and opportunities for building flood resilience in Nepal. The post event review conducted by ISET International, ISET-Nepal, Practical Action Nepal and Zurich examines two rivers and two districts in the area affected by the floods -the Karnali and Babai Rivers in Kailali and Bardiya districts in West Nepal.
While the early warning systems saved many lives, these lives have been irrevocably changed with the widespread loss of livelihoods, property, and critical infrastructure. The challenge now is to prevent such damages and loss from future disasters and develop local resilience. A common misconception is that building resilience is an expensive, resource heavy process. However, critical gaps in the disaster management system can be fixed with inexpensive and simple solutions.
Problems seen in the 2014 floods – such as unwieldy response procedures and lack of information – hamper response to all disasters, including the recent earthquakes. Decision-making processes should be improved, more reliable data gathered, and aid needs to get to those people who need it most. In the end, it comes down to finding ways to become ‘resilient’ to disasters. Resiliency means risk mitigation and preparation, not just picking up the pieces and starting again after every new catastrophe. This is also the focus of Zurich’s flood resilience alliance program.
Focusing on the disaster management landscape as a whole, including disaster risk reduction, preparedness, response and recovery, this post event review evaluates the flood events, impacts, response and recovery to understand what happened, what could have been done differently, opportunities for action, and identify opportunities for improving flood risk and disaster management as a whole in Nepal.
The bigger picture that emerges from the 2014 floods in Nepal can be applied more universally: long-term thinking and addressing chronic problems that increase hazards should be part of the picture to get beyond relief efforts. Much work is still needed to save individuals, families and entire communities from the devastation of floods.No Comments » | Add your comment
Resident of Chitwan District of Nepal, 51 year old Ramlal Chaudary’s family has been dependent on agriculture for generations. But in the recent times, it was getting difficult to sustain his family of nine through agriculture alone. Recently, he had started driving tractor as a side business. But agriculture – is a part of his culture; paddy being the major harvest.
This year too, Ramlal cultivated paddy like every other year. But this year, his field was greener and healthier than that of his neighbours. Even the other farmers observed his field curiously. Though most people assumed that he must have worked too hard to get this result, he actually had neither weeded nor used any pesticides or chemical fertilisers in his field.
Ramlal shares happily, “The pests that were not controlled by strong pesticides are non-existent in my field now, even though I haven’t used any pesticide. Others weeded their fields numerous times and also used chemical fertilisers, but without doing any of that, the paddy in my field has flourished quite extraordinarily.”
So what is the reason behind this drastic change in Ramlal’s paddy? What has he changed in his farming practice to get these great results?
The answer actually is very simple.
Ramlal has started raising ducks along with the rice in his field.
He explains, “I decided to raise ducks in my rice field after attending an orientation programme about rice-duck farming organised by Practical Action. The organisation provided us with proper training to carry out this farming technique and also supported us with a day old ducklings. After the training, we formed a group and started rice-duck farming.”
Rice-duck farming technology was found to be beneficial in terms of providing social, economic and environmental benefits in a pilot research carried out by Practical Action in 2013. Currently, Practical Action Consulting Pvt. Ltd. is implementing integrated rice-duck farming project in Chitwan and Nawalparasi districts with the financial support of Grand Challenges Canada. The project is working to build the capacity of 1000 small holder farmers to adopt the rice-duck farming technology – Ramlal is one among them.
Ramlal says, “I didn’t have any idea about the practice of rice-duck farming. But now, I am experiencing many benefits. The droplets of the ducks acts as manure so there is no need to use chemical fertilisers. The ducks gets the nutrition by feeding upon the pests and weeds. I feel that the ducks are a boon for the rice field.”
Ramlal is the treasurer of the ‘Quality rice-duck farming’ group. There are altogether 15 members in this group – all practice rice-duck farming. The members of the group made a collective decision to practice rice-duck farming in their individual fields. They conduct monthly meetings where they share their agricultural progress and problems, most of which they solve with combined effort. Each member contributes NPR 50 (£0.32) for saving on a monthly basis. The amount is used among the members for agricultural inputs whenever required.
The rice-duck farming technology has made an impact in Ramlal’s life in the first year of the practice itself. The yield in his field has increased. Previously, 0.03 hectares of field yielded hardly two quintals; this year it yielded 2.66 quintals of rice.
He further adds, “I made rupees 52,700 (£337.82) more from the rice alone in comparison to last year. And the best part is that, the ducks become ready to be sold at the same time as rice harvesting. Among the total of 18 ducks I raised, we have kept few to be used at home and sold others at the price of rupees 800 (£5.12) each. This has made a significant impact on my income. People from neighbouring localities and villages also take interest when they see the ducks in the rice field. I try my best to share the knowledge with the ones who are unaware about it.”
(The information for this story was collected by Tej Mani Panth, Practical Action)1 Comment » | Add your comment
Practical Action’s Community Based Approaches (CBA) has gone a long way in addressing the issue of inequality in access to power and decision making in vulnerable communities. I will never forget the feeling of gratitude that Zvishavane Ward 19 expressed after undergoing this training.
Simon Zulu, of Ward 19 said that “The area has been lagging behind in terms of development because of community’s lack of knowledge. We never used to question prescriptive top – down approaches employed by NGOs and other development partners, for fear of losing aid even if the type of assistance was not a priority in our area.”
“Our negotiating skills were so poor that our development priorities could not be easily prioritized even by our own Rural District Council. The CBA training empowered all socio-economic groups in the Ward (women, people living with disability) on how they could participate in making decisions on development interventions that affect them.
Mr Zulu went on to day that CBAs empowered the community on how to make decisions and demand services. On power – some leaders who used to hold many posts in the community which they could not effectively execute have transformed and are now concentrating on posts within areas of their strengths.
I heartily agree with Ward 19’s slogan: CBAs gives a “voice of the voiceless –no planning for us without us.”
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A recent flooding in remote part of Northern Afghanistan killing 80 people and leaving thousands homeless was one of the most talked about news in leading newspaper including the Guardian. Likewise, last month a landslide triggered by heavy rain buried large sections of a remote north-eastern village in Badakhshan province displacing some 700 families. Local authorities are struggling to cope with after effects of the natural disasters.
In order to contribute in national risk reduction mechanism in Afghanistan, Practical Action Consulting is providing technical assistance to Action Aid International to pilot a community based early warning system to reduce effects of flood, mitigate disaster risks of vulnerable communities and in-depth soil erosion in two provinces of Northern Afghanistan.
In addition, the project is playing important role to raise awareness and capacity about importance of early warning system via awareness camps, trainings, mock-drill within community. It is believed that this will help them deal better with flood and disaster and furnish them with knowledge and skills necessary to carry out further risk reduction activities in future.
Amu River Early Warning Project funded by European Commission Directorate-General Humanitarian Aid and Civil Protection (ECHO) under its DIPECHO Seventh Action Plan has been doing different types of activities since July 2013 till date. Awareness raising for instance awareness campaign (village level awareness camp on importance of early warning system, installation of EWS hoarding boards, distribution of EWS calendars etc. ), mock drill, trainings like first-aid, search and rescue training, distribution of first-aid kit box, capacity building and sensitisation training. Moreover, the activities like establishment of small scale mitigation measures, for instance bio-dyke construction, installation of EWS equipment for example flood gauge installation are bringing some rays of hope for people of Areq Ayeq residing at the bank of Amu River Basin and thus, they are getting ready to cope with flood of Amu River.
“We now have 500 metres bio-dyke to protect the river bank from flood,” said Mr. Habibullah, member-DRR Committee/manager-School Management Committee. He further added that bio-dyke protected their school. Further, community people are able to cope with flood and know how to evacuate during disaster. “Earlier I used to be afraid of flood but after receiving training on early warning system, search and rescue by Action Aid/Organisation of Human Welfare (OHW), I am not afraid of it anymore,” Habibullah expressed with pleasure. However, he shared that length of bio-dyke has to be increased in future and project has to be extended giving high priority to their village. Lastly, he added that construction of such kind of bio-dyke is not only helping in reduction from cutting of river bank but also protects our cultivable land together with formation of green and healthy environment through plantation of species like Salix spp. (willow) further providing income generation activities.
Further, the project is coordinating well with government body Afghanistan National Disaster Management Authority (ANDMA). The coordination is believed to help the government body realise the matters of ownership and sustainability. For this reason, EWS cells have been established in both the provinces (Balkh and Jawzjan) of project area together with recruitment of EWS Officer who is responsible to support project, take responsibility in establishment of communication channel, analyse, store and collect flood data and mobilise local communities and gauge readers for the effective implementation of the project.
The project has been expected to reduce annual loss of life and property due to flood in selected villages of Kaldar, Shortepa, Qarqin and Khamab districts. It has been realised that with targeted injection of external assistance, communities can be made more reliant and actively mitigate against risk. Similarly, working in close coordination with ANDMA, cost effectiveness, ownership and sustainability of the project are embedded in province/district targets and plan.
With the encouraging work in the ground, let’s expect no more news of disaster happen in the Northern Afghanistan next year.2 Comments » | Add your comment
Last month, this tweet landed up in my timeline.
— Prasida (@PrasidaKhanal) February 2, 2014
Hanging to a rope, that too above a snarling river, is not only a tough task but can be highly risky sometimes. However, for mountainous countries like Nepal and Bhutan, ropeways are a boon in disguise.
Recently while crossing the Bheri River (in mid-western Nepal) hanging on a primitive looking tuin, an aerial ropeway, I heard a fellow passenger praising an improved version.
As we reached the other side of the river, our discussion continued and few elder farmers joined in. One of the farmers in the group had seen a gravity goods ropeway (GGR) installed by Practical Action.
He was describing the benefits – “three hours’ walk reduced to two minutes’ drop”, “fresh products delivered to the road-head within minutes”, “no threat of falling in the river” and “like travelling in a cable-car”.
Improved tuin and gravity goods ropeways are synonymous with Practical Action in Nepal. The Government of Nepal has started replicating the technology with Department of Local Infrastructure Development and Agriculture Road (DoLIDAR) carrying out the feasibility study of GGR at other probable sites of Nepal.
The replication of the improved technology has now crossed the borders of Nepal. Last February, the first GGR of Bhutan was installed by Tarayana Foundation with technical assistance from Practical Action at Malbasey of Samtse Dzongkha.
The GGR at Samtse has reduced the travel time of two hours’ walk to 1.5 minutes’ drop. Now the agriculture produce like cardamom, ginger, vegetables and other commodities can be easily transported to the bottom station at Malbasey from the top station Changju.
The installing team believes that the technology that has been quite successful in Nepal would highly benefit the 160 households in the vicinity.
The technology is cost effective, time saving, energy efficient, environment friendly and reduces the distance. And above all, it wards off the dangers of travelling, hanging to a rope, like in the tweet.
As you read this blog post and tweet it to your followers, it competes with other 9,099 tweets to get noticed.
So, don’t forget to add the hashtags #GravityGoodsRopeway, #AerialRopeways to your tweet. It simply makes it more traceable.No Comments » | Add your comment
Drew Corbyn is working at the MEGA micro hydro project in Upper and Lower Bondo, Malawi. He will be posting regular updates as the project progresses.
Lower Bondo – technical problems and rolling out connections
Lower Bondo has now connected upwards of 92 houses. This has been managed by a concerted marketing push and doubling the connection team. There was a survey sent round over Christmas which shows there is further demand, and the team will continue to connect more households.
In the last week the system has tripped on a couple of occasions, indicating peak demand is already exceeding capacity (we’re still investigating…). We need to move quickly with demand management – including promotion of efficient products and usage. This will take some time, and there is a risk that the imperative to rapidly increase connections will come at the cost of reliability in the short term.
MEGA’s new General Manager, Peter Killick is organising ‘starter packs’ for MEGA to sell, with all parts needed for a household to connect.
Upper Bondo – construction begins
100 distribution poles have been bought but the pre-payment meters are still with customs. We are continuing to negotiate for their duty-free release. We have written to the relevant Government Department to request a duty, excise and VAT waiver for all MEGA equipment. Whilst the existing renewable energy project equipment waiver should include this, it seems in practice customs only recognise solar panels). Taxes are proving punitive!
Work teams have been mobilised this week and site clearance and excavation of initial works (poles, de-silting basin, conveyance pipe, forebay) has begun. 100 distribution poles are being treated.
MEGA social enterprise
MEGA held the first board of directors and members meeting on 28th January – an introductory affair that covered the necessary legal formalities.
We also convened a Bondo committee meeting to introduce Peter Killick and myself, present the MEGA strategy and pre-payment meter installation followed by a question and answer session.
The construction plan sets out the schedule of activities to complete work by June. It is a very tight schedule, and includes a lot of activity starting in the next couple of weeks. Success will depend on a prompt end to the rainy season, strong contributions from the community and labourers and good progress on procurement.
A Ministerial thumbs-up
MEGA and Practical Action were invited to an energy symposium organised by the Scottish Government at the Polytechnic University of Malawi this Wednesday. Mr Hamza Yousaf, the Scottish Government Minister for Foreign Affairs and International Development was the guest of honour. We were one of a number of organisation that were invited to present our work. We had five minutes talking with him about MEGA as he passed our display. He was interested to hear about the project and very supportive of micro-hydro as a technology and the enterprise model as an approach.No Comments » | Add your comment